આજ નો દિવસ : વિક્રમ સંવત   ૨૦૭૪  ( નેમિસૂરિ સંવત  ૬૯ )  માગશર સુદ એકમ રવિવાર   Dt: 19-11-2017



તલવાર કી કિંમત મ્યાન સે નહિ ધાર સે હોતી હૈ, કપડો કી કિંમત રંગ સે નહિ તાર સે હોતી હૈ, કહી ભી દેખો મહત્વ મૂલકા હોતા હૈ છીલકે કા નહિ, આદમી કી કિંમત પૈસે સે નહિ સદાચાર સે હોતી હૈ…

Sure and Pure religion

Namo Arihantänam: I bow down to Arihanta,

Namo Siddhänam: I bow down to Siddha,

Namo Äyariyänam: I bow down to Ächärya,

Namo Uvajjhäyänam: I bow down to Upädhyäy,

Namo Loe Savva-Sähunam: I bow down to Sädhu and Sädhvi.

Eso Pancha Namokkäro: These five fold reverence (bowings downs),

Savva-Pävappanäsano: Destroy all the sins,

Manglänancha Savvesim: Amongst all that is auspicious,

Padhamam Havai Mangalam: This Navakär Mantra is the foremost.

 

Namo Arihantänam

I bow to Arihantas-those living beings who have reached enlightenment by overcoming inner enemies and weaknesses, who have attained infinite knowledge, infinite bliss, and showed us the path, that brings an end to the cycle of birth and death.

Namo Siddhänam

I bow to Siddhas those who have attained the state of perfection and immortality by liberating themselves of all Karmas.

Namo Äyariyänam

I bow Ächäryas to those living beings who are the heads of religious order and who practice what they know.

Namo Uvajjhäyänam

I bow to Upädhyäys those living beings that are well versed in all Ägams and teach the same to the deserving pupils and other followers.

Namo Loe Savva Sähunam

I bow to all the Sädhus and Sädhvis (monks) that follow the five great vows of conduct and inspire us to live a simple life.

Eso Pancha Namukkäro. Savva Pävappanäsano

That five-fold bowing is eradicator of all sins.

The Navakär Mantra is the most important mantra in Jainism and can be recited at any time. While reciting the Navakär Mantra, we bow down to Arihanta (souls who have reached the state of non-attachment towards worldly matters), Siddhas (liberated souls), Ächäryas (heads of Sädhus and Sädhvis), Upädhyäys (those who teach scriptures and Jain principles to the followers), and all Sädhus and Sädhvis (monks and nuns, who have voluntarily given up social, economical and family relationships). Together, they are called Pancha Paramesthi (The five supreme spiritual people). In this Mantra we worship their virtues rather than worshipping any one particular entity; therefore, the Mantra is not named after Lord Mahävir, Lord Pärshva-Näth or Ädi-Näth, etc. When we recite Navakär Mantra, it also reminds us that, we need to be like them. This mantra is also called Namaskär or Namokär Mantra because in this Mantra we offer Namaskär (bowing down) to these five supreme group beings. Recitation of the Navakär Mantra creates positive vibrations around us, and repels negative ones.

The Navakär Mantra contains the foremost message of Jainism. The message is very clear. If we want to be liberated from the cycle of life and death, we need to renounce worldly affairs by becoming a monk or a nun. This is just the beginning. If we stay on the right path, we will progress to a higher spiritual state, Kevali or Arihanta, and ultimately proceed to become Siddha after nirvana (liberation from the cycle of birth and death). The goal of every soul is to become a Siddha.

Arihantas

The word Arihanta is made up of two words: 1) Ari means enemies, and 2) Hant means destroyer. Therefore, Arihanta means a destroyer of enemies. The enemies referred to here are internal: inner desires and passions. The passions include anger, ego, deceit, and greed. Until we eliminate these passions, the real nature or the power of our soul will not be realized or manifested. When a person (soul) wins these inner enemies, he/she is called a Kevali (omniscient) and Jin (victor).

This state of not having passions and omniscience is manifested when that person has completely destroyed the four-Ghäti karmas (destructive) namely:

  • Jnänävaraniya (knowledge obscuring) Karma

  • Darshanävaraniya (perception obscuring) Karma

  • Mohaniya (deluding) Karma

  • Antaräya (obstructing) Karma

 

These karmas are called Ghäti (destructive) karmas because they directly affect the true nature of the soul. When these Karmas are destroyed, a person attains the following four infinite qualities (Anant Chatushtay) and is called a Kevali.

  • Kevaljnän (Anant Jnän) - Perfect knowledge due to the destruction of all Jnänävaraniya Karmas

  • Keval-Darshan (Anant Darshan) - Perfect perception due to the destruction of all Darshanävaraniya karmas

  • Anant Chäritra - Passionless state due to the destruction of all Mohaniya Karmas

  • Anant Virya - Infinite energy due to the destruction of all Antaräya Karmas.

 

A Kevali, who revitalizes the Jain religion and establishes a Jain Sangha (four-fold Jain order) consisting of Sädhus, Sädhvis, Shrävaks (male householders), and Shrävikäs (female householders), is known as Tirthankar or Arihanta. During every half time cycle, only twenty-four individuals rise to the level of Tirthankar. The first Tirthankar of our time period was Lord Rushabhdev, and the twenty-fourth and last Tirthankar was Lord Mahävir. Lord Mahävir lived from 599 BC to 527 BC.

According to some, all Kevalis are called Arihanta as they have destroyed inner enemies.

At the time of Nirvän (liberation from the worldly existence), Arihanta sheds off the remaining four Aghäti (Non-destructive) karmas:

  • Näm (body determining) Karma

  • Gotra (status determining) Karma

  • Vedaniya (feeling producing) Karma

  • Äyushya (life span determining) Karma.

These four karmas do not affect the true nature of the soul; therefore, they are called Aghäti karmas. They are related to the physical body of the soul. After attaining liberation, (death) the souls of Arihantas are called Siddhas. Since Siddhas have attained ultimate liberation, we do not have access to them. However, Arihantas offer us spiritual guidance during their lifetime. In order to show our special reverence for their teachings, we bow to them first, hence the first line of the Navakär Mantra

Currently, as per scriptures there are no Arihantas except in the Mahä-Videha Kshetra. The last Kevali was Jambuswämi. According to the Ägams, (Jain scriptures) there will be no more Arihantas during the remaining period of the current half cycle.

Twelve Attributes of Arihantas

Tirthankars have in total 12 unique characteristics. Of those, four are main attributes known as Atishaya. The other eight attributes are endowed by heavenly gods and are known as Pratihärya.

Four Main Attributes (4 Atishaya)

  • Omniscience

  • Delivers Extraordinary sermon

  • Worshipped by mundane souls of the whole universe

  • No calamities or diseases exist in his vicinity.

Some Jains believe the four Anant Chatushtay (Infinite knowledge, Infinite perception, Infinite Energy, Perfect Conduct) instead of 4 Atishaya.

Eight Other Attributes (Pratihärya - endowed by heavenly gods)

Simhäsan

A divine seat from where Arihanta delivers sermons

Bhämandal

A halo around Arihanta’s head

Chämar

Angels are waving fans (Chowries) to show Arihanta’s greatness

Chhatras

A three tier divine umbrella over the head suggests that he is the king of the entire universe, which consists of three regions - Hell, Earth, and Heaven.

Ashok Vruksha

A tree under-which Arihanta sits

Pushpavrusti

A continuous shower of fragrant flowers

Dev-dundubhi

A divine announcement declaring Arihanta’s sermons

Divya-dhwani

A celestial music accompanying Arihanta’s sermons

 

Thirty-Four Atishaya

These 12 attributes, when elaborately explained are counted as 34 Atishaya. Both Shvetämbar and Digambar account for thirty-four Tirthankar Atishaya. Some Atishaya are birth related, some are created by heavenly gods (Devas), and some are realized at the time of Kevaljnän.

By Birth, Arihanta has the most beautiful, powerful, and proportionally built body with 1008 auspicious birthmarks. As he is full of compassion, his blood is white, like milk. His breath is fragrant, like a lotus and his body do not generate any waste. He is always disease free. He has very soothing, peaceful, and serene voice which can be heard from very long distances. All - humans and animals alike, can easily understand his language. He can be seen and heard from all four directions. Everyone listens to the sermon keeping their animosities aside.

In his vicinity, the weather is always pleasant and there are no calamities for miles. The Samavasaran can accommodate all. Dharma Chakra (symbolic wheel of religion) and Ashta Mangal (eight embellishments) are also present at the Samavasaran.

 

Siddhas

Siddhas are liberated souls. They are no longer among us because they have completely ended the cycle of birth and death. They have reached the ultimate highest state, the state of liberation. They do not have any karmas, and they do not collect any new karmas. This state of true freedom is called Nirvän. By destroying all 8 types of karmas Siddhas acquire 8 unique attributes. They are as follows:

 

Eight Attributes of Siddhas:

 

 

Anant Jnän

Infinite knowledge

Anant Darshan

Infinite perception

Avyäbädha Sukha

Eternal happiness

Anant Chäritra

Perfect conduct

Akshaya Sthiti

Immortality

Arupitva

Formlessness

Aguru Laghutva

No Status (Neither heavy or light)

Anant Virya

Infinite energy

 

Ächäryas

 

The teaching of Lord Mahävir, the last Tirthankar, is carried on by the Ächäryas. They are our spiritual leaders. The responsibility of spiritual (not social or economical) welfare of the entire Jain community rests on the shoulders of the Ächäryas. Before reaching this state, one has to do an in depth study and achieve mastery of the Jain scriptures (Ägams). In addition to acquiring a high level of spiritual excellence, they have the ability to lead the congregation of monks, nuns and laypeople. Generally, they have the knowledge of various languages and other philosophies and religions of the world. Ächärya is the head of the Jain congregation. They possess the following 36 qualities:

Thirty six Attributes of Ächäryas:

Thirty six Attributes of Ächäryas of Shvetämbar Tradition:

Elimination of Eighteen Impurities

Control over the enjoyments of the 5 senses