આજ નો દિવસ : વિક્રમ સંવત   ૨૦૭૪  ( નેમિસૂરિ સંવત  ૬૯ )  માગશર સુદ બીજ સોમવાર   Dt: 20-11-2017



તલવાર કી કિંમત મ્યાન સે નહિ ધાર સે હોતી હૈ, કપડો કી કિંમત રંગ સે નહિ તાર સે હોતી હૈ, કહી ભી દેખો મહત્વ મૂલકા હોતા હૈ છીલકે કા નહિ, આદમી કી કિંમત પૈસે સે નહિ સદાચાર સે હોતી હૈ…

Jain Path of Twelve Gems(Vows of a Laity)

The word Vrata (Vows) is derived from the verb word “Vru” meaning to select. Therefore, the Vrata means the type of the selection for renunciation. ‘Vrata’ is approximately translated by the English word ‘vow’. Literally, a Vrata means a kind of choice. However, in the technical or idiomatic sense in which the word is used in the connection now under consideration, there is also the meaning of choosing a right course, and then there is the implied effort of will in willing to so choose.Choice implies that the person has before him several ways of conduct, and that he picks out one from among them.The choosing of a right course of conduct from among many ways necessitates the exercise of the judgment and discrimination. Exercising of the judgment in selecting a right course of conduct, as distinguished from living a life where no such choice is made, implies an effort of will.

Vrata depends on:

ñSelection of the type of conduct to be practiced,

ñKnowledge of what is the right conduct and what is the wrong conduct

ñHow much energy one can use for the right conduct.

The hallmark of right conduct is right conviction in thought and action, freedom from infatuation or delusion and passions life anger, hatred etc. Therefore, Vrata is to retire from the wrong conduct like violence, non-truth, stealing, sensual pleasure and possessiveness and to get engaged in the true religious activities through body, mind and speech. We do not take Vrata to please any divine power or any one else. We take Vrata to purify ourselves to continue and enhance the process of liberating ourselves, and to achieve the liberation (Moksha).

Types of Vrata:

The complete renunciation of all worldly attachment is called Mahävrata [major vows], practiced by the Sädhus and Sädhvijis, and the partial renunciation of worldly attachments is called Anuvrata, [minor vows] practiced by Shrävaks and Shrävikäs. In Jainism, each Anuvrata has its negative as well as its positive aspect. Each vow has its negative aspect in the form of moral prohibitions and positive aspect in the form of a moral duty. Negative terms are effective restriction.

Each of these vows has a two-fold purpose. The first is spiritual in that the observance of each of these vows will prevent the influx of new Karmas. The thought of injury, theft, or falsehood is the cause of sin. The other purpose is social. The same thoughts expressed in action will be punished by the state. By observance of each of the vows, an individual will be discharging his social obligation. To desist from violence or theft is to preserve peace and safety in society. While the spiritual fruit of observance of the vows is self-control and stoppage of the evil propensities of the mind, the mundane fruit is mental peace and the good of the society at large.

Five Main Vows of Limited Nature (Anuvratas):

Name

Scriptural Name

Meaning

1. Ahinsä

Sthul- Pränätipät- Viraman-Vrata

Non violence

2. Satya

Sthul-Mrushäväd-Virman Vrata

Truthfulness

3. Achaurya

Sthul- Adattädäna-Virmanvrata

Non stealing

4. Brahmacharya

Sva-Därä-Santosh

Celibacy

5. Aparigraha

Ichchhä Parimäna or Parigraha-Parimänvrata

Non Posseiveness

Three Merit or Supporting Vows (Guna Vratas):

6. Dig Parimäna Vrata

Restraints of Geographical Limitations

7. Bhoga Upbhoga Vrata

Consumption Restraints

8. Anartha Danda-Vrata

Avoidance of purposeless activities

Four Disciplinary Vows (Shikshä Vratas):

09. Sämäyika Vrata

48 Minutes of Meditation and equanimity

10. Desävakäsika Vrata

Stricter Geographical Limitations

11. Paushadha Vrata

Practicing the life of a Monk

12. Atithi Samvibhäg Vrata

Discipline of Share and Care

Five Anuvratas (Minor Vows)

01. Ahinsä Anuvrata - Nonviolence

Samayä Savvabhooesu Sattu-Mittesu Vä Jage

Pänäiväyaviraee Jävajjivae Dukkaram.

--- Uttarädhyayan Sutra

Equanimity towards all beings in the universe, to the friends as well as the foes, is Ahinsä (though) it is hard to refrain from hurting the living beings for the entire life.

The First Vrata, in Sanskrit, is called Sthul- Pränätipät Viraman Vrata. Sthul means gross, as distinguished from strict or subtle. Pränätipät means separating the Pränas (life forces). Viraman means giving up.

The following aphorism from Tattvärtha Sutra presents the definition of violence:

'Pramatta Yogät Präna Vyaparopanam Hinsä'

The destruction of life due to an act involving negligence is violence'.

The term 'Pramäda' yields two meanings:

ñMental state of attachment and aversion

ñNegligence

Therefore, to destroy the life of a living being through passions of attachment and aversion is violence; and to destroy the life of a living being through negligence is also violence. The mental state of attachment and aversion, and of negligence, is internal violence (Bhäv- Hinsä). The actual act of destroying the life of a living being is external violence (Dravya- Hinsä).Now the next thing is to know what killing is, and what particular kinds of killing must be refrained from.

Ahinsä means not hurting, he who abstains from hurt or harm to any - Jiv or a living being - either intentionally, or through others, or by consenting to another to do so, observes the vow of Ahinsä. Surely, the lack of attachment and passion is Ahinsä. When a person is overcome by passions, he causes Hinsä or injury to his own self, though there may or may not be injury to any living being. Everything depends upon the state of mind, and intention to abstain from or commit Hinsä, even where actual hurt or injury is not caused.

Different living beings have different numbers of Pränas (life forces) as follows:

Life Forces (Pränas)

Touch

1.Respiration

2.The ability to move the of body

3.Duration of life (Äyu).

Beings, which have only these four forces of life, are vegetables, trees, earth-beings, water-beings, air-beings, and fire-beings.

Beings with two sense-organs have six Pränas, namely, the above four and also:

4.Sense of taste

5.Ability of speech

They have the means of power of communicating among themselves, which can be called speech. E.g. Shell beings and worms

Beings with three sense-organs have seven Pränas, namely, the above six and also:

6.Sense of smell

Ants, lice and bed bugs are instances of such beings.

Beings with four senses have 8 Pränas, namely, the above seven and also:

7.Sense of sight or vision

Wasps, bees, scorpions are instances of such living beings.

Beings with five senses are of two kinds, the first kind have no mind (mind as meant in the Jain philosophy), and these beings have nine Pränas, namely, the above eight and also:

8.Sense of hearing and are known as Asanjni Panchendriya.

The second kind have mind as meant in the Jain philosophy and they possess ten Pränas, namely the above nine and also:

9.Force of mind.

They are called Sanjni Panchendriya.

The injuries caused by severance of any of the vitalities, to a mobile or immobile being, cause pain, suffering, or even loss of life.

As far as possible, one should save the developed living beings (that is, those on the higher scale of evolution and hence those having more sense organs (Pränas). Again, one should live in such a manner that even the killing of the undeveloped living beings is minimized. This is the teaching promulgated by the saints. It is from this standpoint that meat eating, hunting, massacre, and killing is forbidden.

We cannot but do harm and violence to living beings for the sustenance of our body. We cannot live without killing living beings. Even our breathing involves violence. However, we should do only as much harm or violence as is absolutely necessary for the sustenance of our body. We should make sincere efforts to find out how we can live with minimum violence,Abstaining from intentionally injuring mobile living beings, through mind, words, or body, in any one of two ways  directly or through somebody is called Sthul Pränätipät-Virman-vrata or Ahinsä Anu Vrata. Householders cannot eliminate Hinsä of immobile living beings.Jain scriptures have prescribed five rules of restraint for being firm in the observance of the vow of non-injury. Control of speech, control of thought, regulation of movement, care in lifting and placing things or objects, and examination of food and drink before taking in are the five observances. Self-control is of vital importance. Since the vow of Ahinsä requires one to refrain from hurting the feelings of others, control of speech and thought are quite essential. Everyone ought to be careful in his movements for fear of causing harm to a living being through carelessness. Similarly one ought to be careful while placing down objects let they should hurt some tiny being. Such precaution even ought to be taken while lifting up any object. Similarly, it is necessary to examine minutely one’s own food or drink before taking it in, making sure that there is no tiny being in it.

Jainism makes a distinction between Bhäv- Hinsä (intention to hurt) and Dravya- Hinsä (actual causing of hurt). That is why five kinds of restraints have been expressly mentioned above as the cautions to be observed by one who wants to desist from causing hurt. Similarly, a distinction is made between Sukshma- Hinsä and Sthul-Hinsä. The former requires abstention from causing hurt to life in any form, while the latter requires abstention from hurting forms of life possessing two or more senses. It is not possible for a householder to refrain from causing hurt to forms of life with one sense, like plants, trees, crops, etc. He must, however, refrain from causing unnecessary harm to Ekendriya and Sthävar Jivs. However, it is still ordained that a monk should desist from causing Hinsä to any form of life.

In order to steer clear of violence it is necessary to know the various ways in which violence is incurred.

Hinsä is of two kinds:

ñSankalpi (intentional)

ñÄrambhi (occupational).

Hunting, offering animal sacrifice, killing for amusement, decoration or sport are instances of intentional Hinsä. Abstinence from those is possible without any difficulty. All Jain householders should practice this.

Ärambhi Hinsä is Hinsä committed by a householder in the ordinary course of his living. It is of three kinds:

01. Udyami,

A householder commits Udyami Hinsä while he undertakes some occupation in order to maintain himself, and his family.

02. Grihärambhi

Grihärambhi Hinsä is committed in carrying out the domestic acts like preparation of food, constructing home, cleaning etc.

03. Virodhi

Virodhi Hinsä is committed in self-defense of defense of person or property of members of the family and friends. One has to defend against thieves, robbers, dacoits or enemies in battlesJainism does not preach cowardice. Hinsä must not be indulged in as a matter of hostility or revenge.

Five Transgressions (Atichär) of the Vow of Ahinsä

1.Binding any creature and putting it in a prison-house

2.Beating and chasing of animals

3.Cutting their organs or castrating them

4.Making them draw or carry heavy loads

5.Starving them without food and water

These affect the purity of the vow, as each of these five acts brings suffering to all-living beings.

The consequences of violence (Hinsä) are calamity and reproach in this life and the next. He who commits violence is always agitated and afflicted, being actuated by animosity. He suffers pain and suffering, sometimes imprisonment too. Therefore, everyone should avoid violence and practice benevolence towards all living beings, feel joy at the sight of the virtuous, show compassion and sympathy towards the afflicted, and adopt an attitude of tolerance towards the insolent and ill behaved. He who conducts himself in this way is able to practice nonviolence and other vows to perfection. Thus, the positive virtues, which a votary of non-violence must possess, are Maitri (love or friendship), Pramod (joy and respect), Karunä (compassion), and Mädhyastha (tolerance) towards living beings.

Is it bravery to yield to the passion of anger and fury, and to enter into a fight with one's adversary? Bravery consists of non-violence, that is, restraining the mind from being under the sway of anger and cruelty; it consists of keeping the mind cool and calm by using the internal wholesome strength of discretion. The just mentioned mental or spiritual strength, which is of the form of non-violence, is a superior physical strength that is considered to be an animal strength. Human society achieves progress -religious, spiritual, and even material - in proportion to the cultivation of this strength. The strength of non-violence is the light of intellectual discretion and mental purity. In addition, with this strength, the world of human beings can become rich in friendliness, sympathy, love, spiritual, happiness, and bliss.

Non-violence is a spiritual power. Noble bravery or heroism demands self-sacrifice. Sacrificing violence, supporting, and fostering non-violence is the bravery of high order. Opposing violence only verbally, and running away out of fear when one is required to face and endure physical sufferings and torture, is really not the practice of non-violence. In spite of his having courage and strength to fight, the person who controls his passion and excitement and does not yield to violence is the true follower of non-violence. One who wants to practice non-violence properly and rightly should have, in addition to right understanding, mental strength and courage.

It is only the brave endowed with the power of discrimination and discretion, who can practice non-violence. This is the reason why all the Arhats (Tirthankars) belong to the Kshatriya class/caste; and they do have the heroic character of the highest order. Only those who have the heroic character and at the same time possess the power of discrimination and discretion can become their followers.

One commits violence by not contributing to the efforts of stopping violence or by simply remaining indifferent to violence, just as one commits violence by indulging in positive violent activity. If one who can swim does not rescue a drowning man, and simply watches him drown, it is an act of violence. Not giving food to the hungry in spite of one's ability to give food is also a case of violence. Violence of such type is the result of callous carelessness of the form: 'What concern have I? Why should I invite trouble? I cannot afford to give food, etc., to others'. Hard-heartedness is opposed to religion and religious practice. Universal love is the foundation of religion. Remaining indifferent to others' happiness, comforts, and benefits for the sake of one's own is a form of violence. Taking undue advantage of others' labor is also a form of violence. One knows the truth, and there is the possibility of saving an innocent man by one's speaking the truth on the witness stand in court. Yet if one does not speak out the truth in the court and thus allows the man to be a victim of injustice, is also a case of violence as it is a case of untruth.It can be seen that Jain ethics are founded on the principle of Ahinsä and love for all living beings. While a layman ought to have a rational faith in Jainism, his daily conduct must exhibit the true ideals of non-violence and truth. In his dealings, he must be upright to the core and practice charity, not only by giving, but also by cultivation of non-attachment towards worldly possessions. He must be constantly aware of his duties towards himself and society. His life as a layman should pave the way to the ultimate goal of self-realization. Having perfect faith and knowledge should not be a matter of mere theory, but should be an ideal constantly reflected in daily conduct.

02. Satya Anuvrata – Truthfulness

Musäväo Cha Logammi, Savvasähuhim Garihio

Avisäso Cha Bhuyänam, Tamhä Mosam Vivajjae

--- Dash Vaikälika Sutra

All the saints in the universe have denounced telling lie.

Lie causes distrust among the people and should therefore be given up.

It is also known as Sthul-Mrushäväda-Viraman Vrata. It is falsehood to make a wrong statement through careless activity of body, mind or speech (Pramäda -yoga).

Like poetry, it is difficult to define “truth” though its nature can be described and understood. Umäsväti says that speaking what is not commendable is falsehood. Commenting on this Sutra, Pujyapäd says that which causes pain and suffering to a living being is not commendable, whether it refers to actual facts or not. The words that lead to injury constitute falsehoodSamantabhadra says that he who does not speak gross (Sthul) falsehood does not cause others to speak and does not speak the truth even it is likely to bring danger to him or to anybody else, can be said to abstain from gross falsehood.

Lying is due to some form of passions; therefore, all lying is forbidden, except in cases where the truth is likely to result in greater Hinsä. Satyänu Vrata is abstinence from harmful, rough, cruel or secret revealing speech and requires using harmless and well-balanced language

One should not utter untruth out of attachment or hatred and even the truth, if it causes destruction of a living being. Gross falsehoods are those in which there is an evil intention and knowledge that the statement is false.

Four kinds of Falsehood:

1.Denying the existence of a thing with reference to its position, time and nature when it actually exists,

2.Assertion of the existence of a thing with reference to its position, time and nature when it does not exist,

3.Where a thing is represented to be something different from what it is actually,

4.When a speech is ordinarily condemnable, sinful and disagreeable.

Any speech, which is actuated by passion, is false. Back biting, harsh, unbecoming, and unethical speech is condemnable. That speech which provokes another to engage in any kind of injury or destruction of life is sinful. A disagreeable speech causes uneasiness, pain, hostility, grief, anguish etc, to another person. When a saint or a preceptor gives sound advice against vices or questionable habit of life, he cannot be said to indulge in false speech, even though the person affected may feel ashamed or uncomfortable.

Umäsväti has advised that a person who wants to be truthful ought to give up anger, greed, cowardice, fearfulness, and tease. Divulging of secrets, slander, backbiting, forgery and perjury are obstacles to truth. One must use caution against exaggeration; fault-finding and indecent speech and one should always speak what is “noble, beneficial and concise.” One must avoid boasting of one’s own merits and avoid jealousy about the merits of others. This would draw one unconsciously into falsehood.

To describe a thing as it is or an event as it happened is generally regarded as the truth, and factually no doubt it is the truth, but from the religious standpoint, it may or may not be the truth. If the factual truth is beneficial or at least not harmful to others, it is worthy of being called the truth. However, if the factual truth is harmful to others, it is not worthy of being regarded as the truth. So, mere factually truthful statement should not be uttered, if it is harmful to a living being. Let us explain the point by some examples. We know the direction a deer has gone in. Nevertheless, when we are asked the direction the deer has gone in by a hunter, pointing out the right direction endangers its life. Therefore, in such a situation, keeping silence or showing the hunter a wrong direction in order to save the creature is our duty and religion. It is absolutely necessary to be cautious and to use one's power of discrimination and discretion to decide as to whether or not one should make a statement of fact.

Five Transgressions (Atichär) of this Vow

ñGiving wrong advice about any matter and misleading people in matters of belief or conduct is very objectionable and must therefore be avoided.

ñFalse accusations

ñDisclosure of confidential talks, which one may have overheard, is similarly objectionable. Slandering others or talking about the weaknesses of other people should not be indulged in, as it will damage the prestige of the people concerned. Divulging the secrets of others or breaking the promise of secrecy involves untruth.

ñCommitting perjury or forgery. This includes keeping false accounts, documents, and carrying on false propaganda about others.

ñCommitting breach of trust or misappropriation of what is entrusted to an individual in confidence.

03. Achaurya Anuvrata - Non-stealing

It is also known as Sthul- Adattädäna-Virmanvrata. Umäsväti defines stealing as taking what is not given (Adattädäna). Taking anything that is not given amounts to theft. The gross vow of non-stealing can be observed by desisting from taking away property that is not actually given by the owner.

Theft also involves Hinsä as taking of property, which is not given, not only injures the purity of thought but also pains the person who is deprived of his property. The desire to possess other’s property without his consent or knowledge involves spiritual denigration of the self. One must not take anything belonging to others whether in a house or in the street though it may be of unknown ownership or belonging to a government. This view is consistent with modern law in our country.

Picking up goods which have been lost or forgotten by their owners, employing thieves to obtain things for oneself, encouraging and prompting others to steal, approving others' acts of stealing, receiving stolen merchandise, using false weights and measures, secretly adulterating commodities or substituting inferior ones for the original, gaining or storing goods without paying taxes, breaking laws formulated by the state for the good of the people, indulging in smuggling, dealing in the prohibited items-all these are acts of theft. Buying goods of much value at a very low price taking advantage of the seller's helplessness or keeping the excess material given by the seller by mistake is also an act of theft. In short, taking anything owned by others, through injustice, dishonesty, fraud and unfair means is an act of theft.

Employing unfair means in business, owning another man's property by fraudulent tricks, deceiving others by misleading them, driving others into losses after having won their confidence, damaging others' interests through cunningness, harassing others unnecessarily and unjustly, distressing the innocent-all these are vicious and sinful acts. When society achieves moral elevation through the cultivation of good qualities like contentedness in proper limited possession, self-control, simple living and universal brotherhood, then the sins of immorality, theft, roguery and devilry that have spread over the entire society will automatically disappear.

The results of the observance of this vow are that all people trust you, you are considered a good citizen; and in that way, you prosper; and it develops strength of character.

Five Transgressions (Atichär) of this Vow

1.Accepting or buying stolen property, you did not actually steal it, but you have possession of it without the real owner’s consent.

2.One may not commit theft but if he instigates another to commit theft or shows him the way of committing theft, he is guilty of abatement of theft. Therefore, the manufacturing or supplying of burglars’ tools is an Atichär.

3.Using false weights and measures, As for example using heavier weight for purchasing articles from others and using lighter weights for sale of one’s own commodities

4.The fourth kind of transgression is when a person resorts to under-hand dealings for getting a thing in contravention of rules of control and restrictions which the state might have imposed. This would include smuggling of banned product or supplying an enemy with goods, in time of war.

5.Counterfeiting or imitating. That is, selling things as one thing when they are really another. This would include the adulteration of foods, etc.

Stealing is taking

ñ1. What is not granted by its owner, (Swämi Adatta)

ñ2. What is not granted by a living creature, (Jiv Adatta)

ñ3. What is not granted by the Tirthankars and, (Jin Adatta)

ñ4 What is not given by Gurus. (Guru Adatta)

Based on today’s advancements and environments, the vow of Achaurya will exclude making illegal copies of software, unauthorized use of copyrighted material and unauthorized downloading of music and many similar forms.

04 Brahmacharya Anuvrata – Celibacy

Mulameyamahammassa Mahädosasamussayam

Tamhä Mehunasansaggam Niggantha Vajjayanti Nam

--- Dash Vaikälika Sutra

Being the root cause of sins and abode of major faults,

the sensuous contacts are abandoned by saints.

It is also known as Sva-Därä-Santosh. Brahmacharya term has spiritual as well as physical connotations. Spiritually it is defined as Brahmani Charyate Iti Brahmacharya. Brahman means consciousness or soul, Brahmani means within soul and Charyate means staying. So, the term Brahmacharya literally means staying or dwelling in soul. Therefore, when one remains fully aware of his pure consciousness and stays aloof of all the physical as well as the mental involvements, he can be said to be observing Brahmacharya. Equanimity being the principal property of consciousness, the spiritual Brahmacharya also denotes maintaining equanimity by being free from attachments and from all sorts of craving and aversion.

In physical sense, Brahmacharya means celibacy or averting of the sensual activities. Its observance is essential for attaining the state of spiritual Brahmacharya. Thus, physical Brahmacharya is a prerequisite for spiritual Brahmacharya. On the other hand, when one dwells in soul or Self, he gets rid of all attachment. Such detached person cannot indulge in sensual activity that necessarily needs attachment. Physical celibacy is thus the cause as well as the effect of spiritual Brahmacharya. No wonder that celibacy has been accepted as an ideal and is considered highly virtuous in India and other oriental societies those are spiritually oriented. People observing celibacy are therefore held in high esteem in those countriesThe meaning of the vow as far as the words goes is: Sva means own; Därä means wife; Santosh means being satisfied with. This is the first part of the vow. Para means others; Därä means wives; Viraman means refraining from, Vrata means a choice of undertaking.

This vow consists in desisting from having sexual contact with other women and from abetting others to have such contact, for fear of incurring sin. A person ought to be content with a spouse whom he/she has married in the presence of his/her preceptor and others. He/she should have no sexual desire or sensual look at other women. This vow differs from all others in its double formulation: positive in the sense of contentment with one’s own spouse (Svadärä-Santosh) and negative as avoidance of contact with other women (Par-Stri- Gamana).He who wants to observe this vow both in letter and in spirit must studiously avoid all occasions of meeting women in privacy and talking of matters that are likely to stir feelings of sexual or sensual contact.

All Jain philosophers have been unanimous in condemning breach of the vow of celibacy as leading to commission of various kinds of sins. It is also a sin against the society as it disturbs code of common ethics so essential for peace in domestic life and mutual trust. A man or women given to adultery involves himself or herself in various kinds of deceitful acts, which result in the destruction of all other virtues.Knowing or being convinced of the usefulness of the restriction placed upon himself, Shrävak can help himself to keep the vow by paying attention to the following points. They may be called hedges to keep oneself away from self-injury in the direction of sex passion.

ñTry not to indulge in lustful stories or conversations or talks about woman.

ñHe should not look with a lustful eye or in the spirit of lust on woman’s body, which are factors in arousing the passion.

ñOne should not listen private conversation of a couple.

ñHe should not bring to mind the sexual enjoyment he had with his wife in former days.

ñHe should avoid taking foods that are exciting, intoxicating, or stimulating, especially things that are very oily, containing too much fat, because they produce passion.

ñEven non-exciting and non-stimulating food should not be taken in excess; he should not gorge himself, because a too great quantity of food will produce passion.

ñHe should not embellish his body.

All the foregoing remarks apply equally to women, although they are worded for men.

Thus, this vow requires one to be faithful to his/her own spouse, not to involve in any illicit sexual activities, must view opposite sex person as brother or sister, should not get involve in match making, except for his/her own children and should not talk to or look at a person of opposite sex with lust.

Five (Atichär) Transgressions of this Vow:

1.Having sexual intimacy with unmarried men and women and widow/ widowers,

2.Keeping a mistress or going to a prostitute,

3.Gossiping about sex or making sexually provocative gestures,

4.Leaving one's own children and celebrating the marriages of others

5.Wearing indecent dress and decorations, and taking intoxicating things.

05. Aparigraha Anuvrata - Non-possessiveness

Na So Pariggaho Butto Näyaputten Täinä

Muchchhä Pariggaho Butto Ii Buttam Mahesinä

---- Dash-Vaikälika-Sutra

Articles needed for life do not constitute possessiveness;

attachment is possessiveness,’ says the graceful Lord.

It is also known as Ichchhä Parimäna or Parigraha-Parimäna-vrata. Parigraha is infatuate attachment to possessions (Muchchhä Parigraha). ; It is the result of delusion or operation of the Mohaniya Karma. The desire to acquire and possess a number of worldly things like lands, house, heads of cattle, gold, silver and cash is natural to men and women. This desire should not become insensible. When attachment to such objects of possession becomes uncontrollable or unreasonable, the mind becomes affected by passions of greed and delusion; such mind becomes oblivious to right faith, knowledge and conduct. Infatuation or attachment of any kind becomes a source of evil. In safeguarding property, one is likely to resort to violence and falsehood.

For the householder absolute renunciation of Parigraha is not possible.When the desire to possess is uncontrolled, becomes an evil. To be free from such evil, one should voluntarily decide upon the extent of property and wealth that one should acquire and refrain from all activities of acquisition after the target is reached; this is called Ichchhä- Parimäna-Vrata.Complete renunciation of all sense of attachment is Aparigraha. Parigraha or attachment to possession of property is either external or internal. Possession of external things is not possible without internal attachment. Hence, both the internal attachment and the possession of external objects come within the fold of Parigraha.

External Parigraha

External Parigraha is of two kinds: Sachitta  animate and Achitta  inanimate, which are further divided in ten categories.

ñKshetra -land or fields

ñVästu -houses

ñHiranya -gold and silver coins

ñSuvarna -gold

ñDhana -heads of cattle, wealth

ñDhänya -grains