આજ નો દિવસ : વિક્રમ સંવત   ૨૦૭૪  ( નેમિસૂરિ સંવત  ૬૯ )  માગશર સુદ બીજ સોમવાર   Dt: 20-11-2017



તલવાર કી કિંમત મ્યાન સે નહિ ધાર સે હોતી હૈ, કપડો કી કિંમત રંગ સે નહિ તાર સે હોતી હૈ, કહી ભી દેખો મહત્વ મૂલકા હોતા હૈ છીલકે કા નહિ, આદમી કી કિંમત પૈસે સે નહિ સદાચાર સે હોતી હૈ…

 

Jain Glossary - III

Abhavya

One who is incapable of attaining moksha.

   
   
   

Acaksurdarshana

Perception by means of the senses other than visual.

Acharya/ji

A Sadhu who learned, mastered and taught religious scriptures, follows them, and is now the head of a Sangh.  Head of a mendicant group, spiritual leader and monk-scholar.

Adhi

Two and a half.

Adho-loka

The lower world.  The home of infernal beings.

Agama

Scripture.  Canonical literature.

Aghati

The four types of karmas whose powers are much milder than those of the four-ghati karmas.  These powers end at the end of a life.

Agni

Fire.

Ahimsa

Non-violence, non-harming.  The supreme mahavrat or anuvrat that all Jains must adhere to.  Jain religion is remarkable in that it upholds nonviolence as the supreme religion (Ahimsa Paramo Dharmah) and has insisted upon its observance in thought, word, and deed at the individual as well as social levels.

Ahimsa Paramo Dharma

'Non-violence as the supreme religion.'

Ailaka

The highest state of a Digambara layman, wherein he retains only one piece of clothing.

Akasha

Space.

Aloka-akasha

Totally empty space.

Amari

Prohibition of animal sacrifice.

Anekaantvaad

'Non-singular conclusivity' or multiplicity of viewpoints.  The concept that humans, with obstructed knowledge, will only be able to see limited parts of any whole (situation or truth).

Antaraay

A Ghati karma that obstructs the strength of a soul.

Anuvrat

A vow that is not as strict as a Mahavrat.  Anuvrats are for people living family lives.  The five vratas are: Ahimsa (non-violence), truth, non-stealing, non-possessiveness and chastity or self-control.

Aparigraha

Non-possessiveness. One of the mahavrats and anuvrats.

Ara

One of the six divisions of time in one half of the time cycle.  Runs from thousands to billions of years.  We are currently in the 5th ara of the descending half of the time cycle, which started some 2500 years ago.

Arambhatyaga-himsa

Violence occurring either accidentally or through the performance of an acceptable occupation.

Arati

The lamp-waving ceremony.

Ardha-phalaka

A piece of cloth worn by ancient Jaina monks.

Arihant

Conqueror of internal enemies, such as anger, pride, deceit, greed, jealousy, hatred, intrigue and various other passions.

Ashrava

Karmic influx.  One of the nine tattvas.

Asteya

Non-stealing.  One of the mahavrats and anuvrats.

Atishaya

Thirty-five special attributes of Tirthankaras.

Atithi

One who may come any time, unexpectedly, without invitation, and is still welcomed with love and respect.

Atma

Soul.

Avamaudarya

Eating only a very small portion of food.

Avarsarpini

Regressive half of the time cycle.

Ayu karma

Karma that determines the span of a given lifetime.

Ayushya

An aghati karma that determines how long you will live.

Bandh

Karmic bondage.  One of the nine tattvas.

Beindriya

Souls that live with two sense, namely touch and taste.

Bhante

Repected (Lord).

Bharat

Name of a kshetra.  We live in Bharat Kshetra.  It is located in the southern part of Jambu Dweep (look at geography section for more details).

Bhav

Internal.  States of a dravya. Thoughts, contemplations.

Bhoga-antaraya

Karma that restricts enjoyment.

Brahmacharya

Physical control, abstinence, chastity.  One of the mahavrats and anuvrats.  Jainism emphasizes abstinence from over-indulgence, voluntary curtailment of one's needs, and the consequent subsiding of the aggressive urge.  For shravaks and shravikas, this also means remaining sexually monogamous to one's own spouse.  For sadhus and sadhvis this entails strict abstinence.

Brahmacharya-ashrama

The life of a student. The first of four stages that a Jain shravak and shravika are recommended to pass through in his or her lifetime.

Charitra

Conduct.

Chattari

Four

Chauvisantho

A prayer to the twenty-four Tirthankaras of this kaal in Bharat Kshetra.  We list, bow and praise them for their great virtues.

Choindriya

Soul that lives with four senses, namely touch, taste, smell and sight.

Chovisi

A group of twenty-four.

Dana

Charity.  Alms-giving.

Dana-antaraya

A type of karma that hinders the practice of charity.

Darshan

Vision.  Intuition.  Insight.  Perception.  A system of philosophy. A pure soul has infinite vision.

Darshana varaniya

A ghati karma that obstructs the capacity of a soul to see things clearly.

Dev

A soul in heaven, or at a high spiritual level.

Deva-dusya

'Divine' cloth.  A finely woven piece of cloth.

Devlok

Heaven.  The place where devs reside.

Dhariya

Patience.  A pure soul has infinite patience.

Dharma

Holy law.  Elements in Buddhist doctrine.  Righteousness (ten forms).

Dharma dravya

The principle of motion.

Dharma tirtha

Holy path.

Dhivyadhvani

Miraculous sound.  When a Tirthankara attains enlightenment, this sound emerges from them, silent, yet understood by every living thing in his or her own language.

Digambara

Sky-clad.  Name of the Jaina sect whose mendicants practice ascetic nudity.

Dravya

Substance.

Dukkadam

Forgive me (or dissolve my mistakes).

Dvija

Twice-born.

Dweep

Island.  A large isolated area.  There are two and a half dweeps, each with three kshetras in them.

Eka

One or unitary.

Ekantavada

Extremism.  Absolutist doctrine.

Eka sataka

A mendicant who wears a single piece of cloth.

Ekendriya

A being with only one sense faculty- that of touch.  A synonym for sthavara beings.

Ganadhara/ji

The first mendicant disciples of Tirthankaras. Supporters of the order.  Mahavir had eleven, the most famous of which was Gautamswami.

Gandhasti

The best elephant.

Ghati

The four types of karmas, whose powers are much stronger than those of the aghati karmas.  Karmas that have a vitiating effect upon the qualities of the soul.  These powers may last for many lives.

Ghoratavassi

One who practices severe austerities.

Gnan (jnana)

Knowledge. A pure soul has infinite knowledge.

Gnanavaraniya

A ghati karma that obstructs the capacity of soul to know things in their purest forms.

Gotra karma

Karmas that determine environmental circumstances.

Gruhasth-ashrama

Family life.  The second of four stages that a Jain shravak and shravika are recommended to pass through in his or her lifetime.

Gunastana

The fourteen stages of purification.

Gunavratas

Retraints that reinforce the practice of anuvratas.

Himsa

Injury, harming violence.

Hundavasarpini

A period of avasarpini in which extraordinary events may take place.

Indriya

Sense organ.

Jaina

Followers of a Jina, a synonym for Nigantha.  One who has samyak-darsana.

Jainabhasa

False Jainas.

Jaina-brahman

Laypeople in charge of priestly functions within certain Jaina communities.

Jambu dweep

'The continent of the rose-apple tree.' The realm in the universe that is inhabited by humans.  This region is transverse by six mountains which divide the region into seven regions. The most important regions are India in the south, Airavat in the north, and Mahavideha in the middle. It is believed that in these three regions, humans may find rewards for religious pursuits and that deliverance may be possible.

Janma-kalyana

Birth.  One of the five auspicious events in the career of a Tirthankara.

Jina

'Conqueror.' He who has conquered love and hate, pleasure and pain, attachment and aversion, and has thereby freed `his' soul from the karmas obscuring knowledge, perception, truth, and ability, is a Jina. The Jains refer to the Jina as God.

Jina-agama

Jaina scripture.

Jina-bhavana

Jaina temple

Jina-bimba

Image of a Jina.

Jiv

Soul.

Jiva Daya

Compassion toward living beings.

Jyotish Chakra

Area of space in which zodiac planets, stars, etc. are located

Kaal

Time.  Time stages within the progressive and regressive half-cycles.  Runs into more than billions of years, per cycle.

Kalyanaka

Auspicious moments.

Kanyadana

Ceremony of giving away the bride.

Karemi

'I do.'

Karma

Action.  A deed, good or bad.  A form of matter.  Upon maturing, it delivers its fruit.  There are 4 Ghati and 4 Aghati types of karmas.  Powers of Ghati karmas are much stronger, and they last for many lives.

Kashaya

Passion.

Kausagga

A motionless state of body, as if the soul has departed from it.

Kayotsarga

Abandonment of the body, a standing or sitting posture of meditation.

Kevaldarshan

Infinite vision and perception.  After acquiring it, the cycle of births and deaths is broken forever.  Any soul can attain it, by getting rid of karmas, attachments and hatreds.  With it comes kevalgnan, infinite Dhariya, Tapa and Veerya.

Kevaldarshi

One who has kevalgnan.

Kevangnan

Infinite knowledge.  Knowledge isolated from karmic obstruction.  Omniscience.  Knowledge involving awareness of every existent in all its qualities and modes.

Kevalin/gnani

One who has kevalgnan.  Synonym for arhat.

Khamana

Homages, or salutations.

Khamasamano

Forgiving Gurudev.

Krodha

Anger.

Kshama

Forgiveness.

Kshetra

An area, site or location where humans exist.  Each kshetra has four more similar counterparts.

Ksullaka

Minor.  A junior monk.  A Jaina layman on the eleventh pratima.  One who wears three pieces of clothing.

Kumara-sramana

A life-long celibate.

Logassa

(Masters) of the entire universe.

Loguttama

Supreme.

Maharaj Saheb

'King, sir'. A title used for sadhus, to indicate respect.

Mahavideha

Name of a kshetra.  Twenty Tirthankaras currently exist there, deeming it the most sacred kshetra.

Mahavir

Twenth-fourth Tirthankara in this ara of the time cycle. His name means 'The most courageous one.' Mahavir was an actual historical figure who lived some time between 599-527 BCE. He was a contemporary of another great spiritual teacher--Gautama Sakyamuni--who would come to be known in history as Buddha. According to most accounts, Mahavira was also a high-born member of a warrior caste who renounced the world when he was thirty to pursue a life as an ascetic. His moment of enlightenment came after twelve years of spiritual pursuit. He then gathered twelve disciples around him, and it is through these disciples that his teachings were eventually documented and disseminated.

Mahavrat

A vow that is much stricter than an Anuvrat.  Only those who take diksha will take on these vows (i.e. sadhus and sadhvis).  There are five mahavrats- namely ahimsa, anekantvaad, aparigraha, asteya and brahmacharya.

Mangal/Mangalam

Destroyer of sins.  Auspicious.

Mantra

A prayer with strong psychological powers.

Maun

Silence.

Michchhami

'I wish.'

Mohaniya

A ghati karma that obstructs the capacity of soul to think properly.

Moksha

The state of freedom, for a soul, from the cycle of birth and death.

Muktishila

The topmost area of the universe, the area of freedom.  After death, a liberated soul rises to it, and never comes back into the cycle of birth and death.  Every soul that exists there is Kevalgnani, Kevaldarshi and has infinite dhariya, tapa and veerya.

Muni

One who keeps maun.  He only observes, without praising or complaining.

Naam

An aghati karma that determines the body

Namoththunam

Expression of respect to the virtuous gurus.

Namaskara mantra

Reverent salutation to the five holy beings- arihants, siddhas, acharyas, upadhayas and sadhus/sadhvis.  A prayer consisting of nine lines, which is the most meaningful of all Jain prayers in that it allows the follower to pay homage to all teachers.

Naraki

Hell beings.

Nigoda

The lowest form of life.

Nirjara

Dissociation of karma.  One of the nine tattvas.

Nitya

Eternal.

Niyati

Fate.

Niyativada

Fatalism.

Om

Sacred sound formed by combining the first syllable of each word in the namaskara mantra.

Pachchakhan

Formality for taking a vow.

Pad

Poem

Panch

Five

Panch kalyana

The five auspicious events in the life of a Tirthankara.

Panchendriya

Souls with five senses, namely touch, taste, smell, sight and hearing.

Pani patra

Hand-bowl.

Pannato

Spoken, or taught.

Papa

Unwholesome karmas.

Paramanu

Atom.

Paramataman

The highest liberated soul.

Parasparopagraho Jivanam

'Souls render service to one another.' From Tattvartha Sutra 1: 4: 1.

Parvan

Jaina holy days.

Parigrahatyaga-pratima

The ninth stage in which a layman abandons the cares of worldly possessions.

Paryushan-parva

A ten-day holy period for fasting during the rainy season (usually August or September).

Pavazzami

'I seek.'

Phala

Fruit.

Poshadh

A day chosen by a householder to live like a muni.

Pratikraman

Going back to the original virtues (of soul), which are: compassion, peace, even-temperament, forgiveness, etc.

Pratima

Stages of renunciation for a layman.

Pudgala

Matter

Puja

Worship

Pumveda

Sexual cravings for a female.

Pundarik

The best lotus.

Punya karma

Wholesome karma.

Puranas

Name of a class of sacred texts dealing with the lives of Tirthankaras.

Purva

A group of fourteen Jaina canonical texts, now extinct.

Pushakarvar

Name of a dweep.  Only half of it is used for living.

Raga

Desire.  Passion.  Attachment.

Rajlok

Geographical term. The universe is divided into 14 Rajloks, consisting of hells, dweeps, heavens, etc.

Sadhu/sahoo

A male who has given up the family life, wealth and worldly comforts for seeking liberation.  He learns scriptures religiously.

Sadhvi/ji

A female who has given up the family life, wealth and worldly comforts for seeking liberation.  She learns scriptures religiously.  Sadhvi Shilapiji is the only Jain sadhvi to ever study outside of India.  She is currently pursuing her PhD at Oxford, in England.

Salekhana

Voluntary and controlled fasting to death.  This is a very misunderstood and controversial concept in Jainism.  It is believed that in 420 BCE, Mahavir engaged in salekhana.

Samayik

State of calmness and sinlessness of mind and speech.  Usually 48 minutes for householders and a lifetime for sadhus and sadhvis.

Samiti

Five areas of caution: walking, speaking, taking food, handling materials and discarding excretion.

Samkeet

Awakening of the soul to the right path.  Once a soul has samkeet, he gets liberated within a few incarnations.

Samurchchhin

A small human-like life, of bacterial size, residing inside our human bodies.  It can be born spontaneously, by itself.

Samavasarana

Holy assembly of the Jina.

Samaya

Moment.

Samkalpaja-himsa

Intentional, premeditated violence.

Samsara

Cycle of transmigration for all non-liberated souls.

Samvar

Stoppage of the influx of karmas.  One of the nine tattvas.

Sangh

Fourfold society, as founded by a Tirthankara, consisting of male and female sadhus and householders who follow the principles of Jainism.  Establishing a sangh is what distinguishes a regular kevali from a tirthankar (a kevali who establishes a sangh).

Santharo

Peaceful, voluntary and planned religious death.

Sanvibhag

Sharing equally, with love and respect.

Sanyast-ashrama

Life as a monk, a period of renunciation.  This is the fourth of four stages that a Jain shravak and shravika are recommended to pass through in his or her lifetime.

Sharanam

Shelter.

Shikshavrat

Four vows, which prepare and train a householder for the eventual muni life.

Shravak/ji

Male householder, following the principles of Jainism.

Shravika

Female householder, following the principles of Jainism.

Shri

A prefix used to indicate respect.

Siddha

One who has achieved complete liberation from cycles of births and deaths, and now in muktishila.

Stavara

Immobile beings, such as plants.

Sthapana

Ritual act of asking a monk to stop for alms.

Sutra

A scripture written in the ancient Ardhamaghdhi language.

Svetambara

White, cotton-clad.  Name of a Jaina sect whose medicants wear white garments.

Tapa

Penance which contributes to the destruction of karmas.  A pure soul has infinite tapa.

Tassa

For (my blemished soul).

Tattva

The nine 'reals', regarded as objects of faith for a Jaina.

Teindriya

Lives with three senses, namely touch, taste and smell.

Tikhkhooto

Three times.

Tirthankara

'Builders of the ford.'   One who reestablishes the religion and fourfold society system of Sadhus, Sadhvis, Shravaks and Shravikas.

Upadhyay/ji

A sadhu who learned, mastered and now teaches religious scriptures.

Uttari

Upliftment or elevation.

Vandana

Act of bowing, or offering salutations.

Vanaprasth-ashrama

Family and service to society.  This is the third of four stages that a Jain shravak and shravika are recommended to pass through in his or her lifetime.

Vanasi

Forest dweller.

Vandana

Reverent salutation.

Varna

Caste, hierarchy, class.  Color.  A quality of matter.

Varnalabha

Ritual celebrating the establishment of a new household by a married son.

Veda

Sexual feelings.

Vedniya

An aghati karma that determines the mundane experience of pain and pleasure.

Veerya

Strength.  A pure soul has infinite strength.

Vira-nirvana

Beginning of the Jaina era.  Death anniversary of Mahavir.

Vitraag

One from whom attachment is gone for materials.

Vrat

Vow.

Yathapravrtta-karana

The soul's ineradicable tendency towards spiritual growth.

Yati

A spiritually advanced layman of the Svetambara sect.

Yatra

Pilgrimage.

Yoga

Vibration, Activities, or Meditation.

Yojana

A measure of distance equal to about eight or nine miles.