આજ નો દિવસ : વિક્રમ સંવત   ૨૦૭૩  ( નેમિસૂરિ સંવત  ૬૮ )  ભાદરવો વદ અમાસ બુધવાર   Dt: 20-09-2017



જીવન માં જે વાત ભૂખ્યું પેટ અને ખાલી ખિસ્સું શીખવે છે, તે વાત કોઈ શિક્ષક પણ ના શીખવી શકે

Knowledge generated through words of trustworthy authority (dpta) is called valid verbal knowledge (dgama-pramdna or sabda-pramdna).

Words that propound the pure Reality, that throw true light on spiri­tual development and its means, and that are not contradicted by other forms of valid knowledge, viz., perception, inference, etc. truly constitute agama or scripture.

One who preaches and teaches the truth and reality as they are, for the benefit of all is called a trustworthy authority (dpta). And words of such a person are called scripture (agama). The supremely trustworthy authority is that person who has totally removed all the defilements like attachment, aversion, etc., from his soul and who has preached the el­evating and pure teaching on the basis of his perfect and pure knowledge. As he is absolutely free from the defects like attachment, etc., that soil the soul, his heart is full of universal love. He is the Compassionate par excellence. And impelled by universal love and compassion, he teaches fruth and Reality, especially the path leading to liberation, on the basis )f his pure knowledge gained through spiritual and yogic practice.

The serene philosophy propounded in scriptures will possibly be totally nisunderstood and will consequently do great harm instead of benefit, f it is not reflected on by one's impartial, discerning, discreet reason. Lbandonment of obstinacy, love or predilection for truth, impartial at-itude, judicious and sharp intellect, unagitated and calm mind, penetrat-lg insight, pure desire for knowledge—if these qualities are cultivated y a person, then he can successfully and without any fear dive into the eep waters of the ocean of scriptural truths and realities. When we think superficially about the thoughts of great sages, we feel lat the thoughts of one are contradictory to those of another. But, if standpoints, we find them not contradicting but supplementing one another, thus leading to one Grand Truth.

We have expounded, in brief, valid knowledge and its varieties. The opposite of it is called false knowledge (apramdna, bhrama or mithyd-jndna). Valid knowledge cognises a thing as it is; while false knowledge cognises a thing as it is not. False knowledge cognises a rope as a snake, a shell as silver, etc. It mistakes one thing for another. It mistakes wrong view for right view, unwholesome conduct for wholesome conduct, insentient thing for sentient thing, sinner for saint, and vice versa. If we commit a mistake in understanding the nature of a thing or reality, know it as it is not, superimpose on it the nature which is not its own true nature and wrongly understand it to be having the nature which it actually does not have, then our activity based on such wrong understanding will naturally be not right or proper. When we mistake a rope for a snake, we shiver out of fear without any real cause for fear. When we mistake mirage for water, we run towards it to quench our thirst with great hope, but that attempt of ours does not succeed and we become downcast and dejected. If we mistake a friend for an enemy, and vice versa, then whatever activity we undertake with respect to them will certainly be improper and oppo­site of what it should be. These are the instances of activities generate! by illusory or false knowledge. Illusory or false knowledge means wrong or perverse understanding. Hence it does not fall in class of valid knowl­edge.

Mati and sruta are the cases of indirect valid knowledge or non-perceptual knowledge. Sruta-jhdna means dgama^pramdna (verbal knowledge) which is a variety of indirect valid knowledge. A sub-class of mati-jnana, which is formed by the knowledges of colour etc., generated by sense-organs (though re­garded as indirect or non-perceptual from the ultimate standpoint on account of their being derived not directly from soul but indirectly through the medium of sense-organs) is called the class of empirical perception. And another sub-class of matijndna, formed by memory, recognition, cogitation (hypothetical reasoning), inference, etc., is included in the class of indirect valid knowledge. Thus, the classification of valid knowl­edge into direct valid knowledge and indirect valid knowledge is recon­ciled well with the old scriptural classification of valid knowledge into five types, viz. mati, etc.