F4 4.3.1 Stories from Agamās.
Our religions keep the ___ culture of India in a living state. Since ancient periods, there have been stories embodied in religious teachings. Our literature of tales and stories is very rich we find a number of stories, tales, Akhyān, illustrations, similes etc. in our Agamā literature. For an example, there is a story of Rohini. There is a rich merchant named Dhanya Sarthvah. He has four daughter- in law. Their names are : Urjikaha, Bhogvati, Rakshika and Rohini. Once the father-in-law Dhanya Sarthvah decides to test their intelligence. He had given each one of them a small box containing paddy. He has instructed them, that after so many years, he shall recollect the box form them.
The first one thought, what the sense in keeping these grains of paddy for so many years? She thought they are wants. So, she threw away the paddy grains. The second one consumed them in the meals. The third one very carefully and protectively keep the box, safe. The forth on used the paddy as seeds, cultivated them in the field and grew quite a lot of paddy.
Thereafter, Dhanya Sarthawah distributed the household responsibilities to all the four according to their qualities. The first one was given the wok of cleanliness of the house; the second one was given the charge of kitchen, the third one Rakshita was given the responsibility of safe and treasury containing riches; and the forth one, Rohini was made the chief of the House. Thus, the story, illustration, dialogue, popular folk-tales etc. are deployed to teach religious matters. In Sutradrutang the retigious discourse is provided through an illustration of lotus-bedded beautiful Puskarini lake. Uttaradhyayan Sutra itself is a religious poetry, where in religious discourse of renunciation is provided through similes, illustration, dialogues etc. In Vipaksutra too there are stories related to sin and righteousness, which turns a persons from evil karmās to good karmās. In Agamās too, there are stories.
F4 4.3.2 Vasudev Hindi Stories.
In Vasudev Hindi stories, we have an account of travels of Vasudev; father of Krishna. This is also known as Vasudevcharit. This work is considered to be ancient one. In literature of stories.
Vasudev Hindi Kathanak (Stories of travels of Vasudev)
In Vasudev Hindi Kahuppatti, we have, life-sketch of Jambudwip, dialogue between Jambu and Prabhav, biological story of Kuberdatta, Akhyan (story in verses)of Maheshvardatta, Akhyan (story in verses) ofPrasanchandra, story of Brahmin Daruk, evolution of Anthiydev etc. in the end, we have the evolution of Vasudev Charit.
Thereafter there is a story of Dhammil. After marriage, Dhammil kept himself busy in reading and writing when the father came to know of this in order to direct his son’s attention to newly wedded wife, he got him stop the activity of reading and writing, but in that case, Dhammil was led to prostitution and used to spend his time with his friends in garden, meetings, forest etc. He left his wife and used to stay with the prostitution called Vasantlilak. This caused grief to the wife as well as the mother.
In the meanwhile, Dhammil came into contact with Agaddatt Muni. The muni narrated to him about his previous birth, and got married to number of women from good families when Vasantsena came to know about this she gave away all garments and ornaments.
Besides, it also relates about the story, of Pradhyumna and Shumbkumar, in ‘Mukh’ section, there is an introduction of Andhak Vrushui and his previous births. ‘Sharir-Adyayan’ section starts with dialogue between Sama and Vijaya and at the end there is description about marriage between Vasudev and Ketumaly. The whole book is divided into 2 (two) divisions. In first division, there are 21 sections and 11,000 verses. In 2nd section and 17,000 verses. The first division is composed by Sambh Das Ganivachar and the second division is composed by Dharm Das Gani.
The story is broadly divided into 10 divisions. Kahupatti (evolution of a story) Pithiya (Pithika or Background) Mun (Mukh that is face, Padi mukh), Sarir (Body) and Uvsanhar (conclusion)
The time-span of Sambh Das Gani is considered to be 5th century A.D. The story is having primarily the romantic descriptions; but it also contains religious discourse in between. According to second division, Vasudev got married to 100 brides and also moved for about 100 years.
The book Vasudev Hindi has been composed in poetry in couplets. The language is simple, lucid and enjoyable. The language is ancient Maharashtrian Pakrit. One finds many indigenous words used in this. Along with a story of travels of Vasudev, there have been several other stories interwoven in it, wherein we find the life sketches of Lord Tirthankaras and other Shalaka purushas. In between we also find the benefits and disadvantages of Anuvrat, performance of other world, forms of Greater vows, disadvantage, of eating of meat, the existence of life in vegetables and such other elements of Jainism.
F4 4.3.3 Stories of Upeshmala
The main element of Jain Stories and Such relevant literature is religious discourse. Here there is emphasis is on character, donation, penance, renouncement and non attachment. Such Literature is composed by the Jain Acharya for popularising this objective several works in the name of Updeshmala have been constituted.
Dharma Das Gani the author of Updeshmala has incorporated several discourses and sermons of ancient religious great people in an illustrative manner. In ‘Paiman Katha’ there are 542 stanzas in Prakrut language; in which there are 70 stories narrated. The author has claimed this work to be providing peace, welfare and well-being.
The author seems to have been belonging to 4th or 5th century. There are 4 divisions in this story-tale. Subject matter.
In first division, there are stories about Chandra, Bharat and Brahmdatta etc. In second division, there are stories about pertaining to Mrugavati, Jambuswami, Bhavdev, Kuberdatta, Makardadha prositure, Bhitacharya, Chilatipurta, Karidesh, Vajra Swami, Vasudev etc. in a Jambu Sami’s story, there is a dialogue between Yograj and a man.
In third division there are stories of Shuli Bhadra, Metarya Muni, Pradeshi Raja, Kalka Ccharya, Vasar Muni, Sakarmand, Goshala Shrenik, Chanakya, Arya Mahagiri, Anuikaputra, Four Pratyek Buddha etc.
In for the division there are stories of Shelkacharya, Pundrik-Kandarik, Dardur Sunasa, Jamali etc.
There have been certain criticisms from several learned persons on this very important work.
Besides stories, in Updeshmalas, we get morals and sermons. Two more authors called Jaysinh and Yashodev also composed separate Updeshmala. Jaykirti composed Shilopadeshmala. Some more works containing sermons were also composed of which the main are Updeshak by Hari Bhadra, Updesh Ratnakar by Muni Sunder, Updesh kandali by Asik etc. in these stories, the sermons of Lord Tirthankaras have been interwoven with illustrations of great ancient monks there stories are mainly biase with ideal of detachment from the worldly maters; and therefore do not attract those who are not interested in penance and renunciation.
F4 4.3.4 The ancient story in Jainism - Samaraichhkaha
“Samaraichhkaha” (in Pakrit language) is Samaraditry Katha (in Sanskrit). It is a discription of 9 life of king Samaraditya of Ujjain and his counter part Agni Sharma.
Author : The author of Samarichhkaha is Hari Bhadra Suri, son of Yakini Mahattara. He was a great scholar of both Sanskrit and Prakrit.
Time : He belonged to Eight century A.D.
Subject : This work contains the love stories of heroes and heroines and their conduct. They thereafter, renunciate the world and become monks and nuns. During these description the religious stories and sermons are also interwove in between. The stories thus support the principle of Karmās birth and rebirth etc.
Language: This is written in Maharastrian Prakrut; but we also see and impact of Shaurseni language also. The poetry section is weitten in Arya chhand. We also see impact of Dwipadi, Vipuna etc. But, the language is very simple and lucid. In the description, we see the use of Samās and similes etc.
In earlier life, Samaraditya was prince Gunsena; and Agnisharma happened to be the son of his Purohit. He was very ugly. The prince used to laugh at him, which he felt very bad, and he took a vow to become his enemy in birth and rebirths and kill him. This he does for nine births, and in all rebirths, he continues his enmity with the prince.
Now in second birth, Agni Sharma happens to be son of king Sinhkumar and takes revenge.
In Third birth Agni Sharma’s soul takes birth as Jalini; and Gunsen happened to be his son Shrikumar, who he gives poison.
In Forth life both Gunsen and Agnisharma are born as husband and wife-Dhan and Dhanshri and again takes revenge.
In Fifth life, Agnisharma is born as Jay and Gunsen is born as Vijay. Both are brothers, but Jay kills Vijay and thus take revenge.
In Sixth life, Gunsena and Agnishama again become husband and wife Dharan and Laxmi. Here Laxmi tries to take revenge but does not succeed.
In Seventh birth Gunsen and Agnisharma are now born as Jivasen and Vishen. They are brothers. Vishen is the younger brother who tries to take revenge with Jivasen but does not succeed.
In eighth birth Gunsen becomes Samaraditya in Ujjain, and Agnisharma becomes a person of lower caste Chandal named Girisen wants to kill Samaraditya for taking revenge, but not succeed.