Classification of Literature according to 4 Anuyogā
Agamās literature is the source of Jain Philosophy, it is divided into 4 main parts according to the subject matter.
These 4 main subjects are
Anuyogā in brief can be defined in these two ways :
· First the main text and thereafter the meaning or explanation. The relation between the two is Anuyogā.
· The meaningful interpretation following the main text such interpretation should be in accordance with the main text. No liberal deviation is permissible.
Earlier, all the four meanings were defined in Agamās; but in course of time, the definition regarding Anuyogā has been made by Acharya Rakshit Surijee and that is now accepted.
F4 4.2.1 Dravyanuyogā
In this Anuyogā, we find the description of various facets of the substance called soul. The soul has its proper place in Moksha, (liberation); but it has been covered with several impure karmās of the world. This Dravyanuyogā. Describes the following 6 substances focusing the substance of soul.
Jivā (The soul)
Pudgal (The material)
Dharmā (The religion)
Adharmā (The negation of religion)
Kāla (The time)
Of these, Kāla (The time) is not astikāya. That is why, many scholars do not consider kāla (the time) as a Dravya (substance). Nevertheless, Kāla, (The time) is useful in changing process of a substance. That is, why it is considered as Dravya (the substance).
Of the six substances, the Jivā, signifies the characteristic of Chetna (the consciousness). The characteristic of Pudgal (The material) is touch, taste, smell and colour. The Dhramā has a characteristic of acceleration in speed, where as that of Adharma is static (Status quo). Aākāsh provides the space and the Time (Kāla) is responsible for change or transformation.
Of these Six substances, the sky is considered to be substance of support, where as the remaining five are being supported:
In the second Angā, called Sutrakrutang (Suydang) we see the main focus on Dravyanuyoga. This Dravyanuyogā is also known as Mine of Gold because we happen to know the soul in its true spirit from this Dravyanuyogā.
F4 4.2.2 Ganitānuyogā
According to Jain belief, Ganitanuyogā includes Astronomy4 Geography4 Astrology, the types/ differences of Kāla etc. But this material list will not suffice to understand Ganitanuyogā in toto. In Dravyanuyogā we acquired knowledge about 6 substances. Now if we can imbibe real and deep faith on that knowledge, it is true Ganitanuyogā. There are two divisions of a substance called the sky-lokakash only. The Alokakash exists beyond it.
In Lokaksah also, there are 3 (three) divisions :
Urdhvalokā : the High land
Adholokā : the under land and
Tiryak : (Tirchha) lokā.
In this Ganitanuyogā we have detailed description about; the Dwipa and Samudra (island and the sea),
River, mountains, Hills, seven world’s their measurements, about sun and moon and how they have been responsible for changing or transforming Time / seasons; their total number (they are so many !) the speed, the light, the height, the growth and diminishing, Dharm Astikay etc. the total number of their regions etc.
We find the focus on Ganitanuyogā in the Upangās like Surya Pragnapti, Jambudwip Pragnapti, Chandra Pragnapti, etc. The Ganitanuyogā is described as Mine of Silver the precious metal
F4 4.2.3 Charankarnanuyogā.
This Anuyogā is responsible for the Right conduct, and that is why, among all four Anuyogās, it is very powerful, because, after acquiring knowledge and faith, the soul requires Right conduct of reach to its ultimate goal. This Anuyogā has two words combined into it.
1. Charan : i.e. the original conduct, original quality, the activity which are must perform daily, i.e. Daily routine rituals.
2. Karan : i.e. post quality. The activity that a person need to perform for some purpose only.
Both these ‘Charan’ and ‘Karan’ have 70-70 detailed divisions; so they are also known as Charan Sittari (70 charans)
This Charan Sittari includes :
05 great vows.
10 duties of monks
17 types of constrains
10 types of Vaiyavachha
09 types of Brahmcharya Gupti
03 types of Knowledge, vision and conduct
12 types of penance.
04 types of restrictions on anger, ego, passion and greed.
Thus, Charan-Karnanuyogā is a description about code of conduct for a monk as well as ordinary followers. There is a description in great details about 5 great vows, 5 types of conduct, eight ‘Pravachan Mata’ Charan Sittari (as detailed above) Karan Sittari, 35 qualities of those who have been on Jain path4 the science of food, water, language, bed, clothes, utensils etc. during a monk’s life, and his routine etc. as well as regarding the 12 vows of an ordinary Jain follower.
In the first Ang – ‘Acharang Sutra’ focus this Anuyogā is known as the Mines of Diamond.
F4 4.2.4 Dharmakathānuyogā.
In Dharmakathānuyogā, there have been various biographical sketches of great people religious stories, the tales and stories containing substantial leanings. Dharmakathānuyogā means the kind of stories, which describe how the persons following religion get Mokshā and how the persons who lead non-religious life, and who disgrace religion get the hellish kind of living and how they have to lead the life of birth and re-birth in this world in various kinds of yoni.
The 6th Ang, called ‘Gnyata Dharmakathang’ now Dharmakathānuyogā in focus.
In earlier, Ganitanuyogā, the person gets deep conviction. He knows about the ultimate place for the soul. He knows where and why his soul has been wandering in various places since time immemorial and that generates in him true conviction.
In Charan karmnānuyogā, he realizes that Right conduct is very useful and thereby he realises how the soul can be liberated by washing out the karmās as the soul.
Now in Dharmakathānuyoga, through various illustrative description of great people one gets motivated to go to the path of liberation. He becomes more active in the direction to liveration.