F3 3.1.1 Form of a Jivā (Living) and other details
In the entire Universe, there are only two elements viz. a living being (Jivā) and a non living being for a living being4 the other words are also used as animal, conscious etc. one who is living is a jivā. One who possesses consciousness like knowledge etc. is conscious (Soul) and one who possesses Prans and Pranis (animals).
Then what is the difference between the Soul and other Jivā? As such, both are Souls; but a soul which is vocered with Karmās is a Jivā; and a soul, which is liberated from Karmās is a pure soul.
Form of a Jivā
Jivā, a living being is a pervert form of Soul. Ther unending travel of a Jivā in four patterns of Sansar – the world is due to Karmās. And acts. The soul was always covered with the Karmās for time immemorial. Its position in the initial periods was very subtle. It has never never happened that initially it was without any covering of Karmās and thereafter it was covered with Karmās.
The souls which have not been dissociated with Karmās have to lands in this world. The Karmās, sometime make him happy and sometimes make him unhappy. Even sometimes it make him sinful. Till the body exists, the soul does not become free from the chain of birth – life – death – rebirth etc. etc. This is the form of living being. Thus, when we refer to body with a soul, we refer it as Jivā, but when refer to a liberated soul, which has attained Mokshā; it is a living being without body; and then it is referred to as soul (Atmā).
Form of Soul (Atmā)
The soul (Atmā) is a form of Shiva. It is free from all the faults and like Raga (passions), Dwesha (aversion), Mohā (attraction), ignorance, idleness, sensual pleasures, Kashayā (faults defects.) It is in form of bright flame of knowledge. The flame is immortal never bying. It cannot be cut to pieces. It cannot be broken. It cannot be pressed; it cannot be frightened. It is graced with eight permanent virtues like Right knowledge etc. Just try cover it with an umbrella with several holes in it; and then remove the entire cover together. How brightly it lights; the soul is enlightened so brightly.
Nature of soul (Atmā): there are 3 types;
1) Bhavya, 2) Abhavya, 3) Jati Bhavya
1) Bhavya Jivās :They can attain liberation (Mokshā). The Jivās (living being) once have a self realisation andthereafter if they have an apprehension as to whether they are Bhavyās or Abhavyās. Such persons having doubts in mind about oneself are Bhavyā.
2) Abhavya Jivās : They cannot attain liberation (Mokshā). In fact, they have no conviction about existence of Mokshā. They have not attained Samyakatwa (Right vision). They may renunciate the world and become a monk, in a course of time, even become Acharya, (head of order) they may even work for development of Jainism and Jain order; they may even lead several persons on the path to liberation; but they themselves lack in inner conviction; and therefore they are Abhaya and cannot attain Mokshā
3) Jati Bhavyā : They have potential to attain Mokshā, but they will not get proper resources for attainment of Mokshā. They cannot move ahead from the life of Akendriya (One sensed) living.
Thus, Jivā (a living being) is a soul in Sansar (the world); and the real soul (Atmā) is one who has attained Mokshā (liberation); and such become Siddha.
F3 3.1.2 Main Characteristics of Jivā.
We have made it crystal clear that a soul with the covering of Karmās or action is a Jivā. Only when such Jivā becomes dissociated with Karmās; it because a pure soul (Atma).
The Jivā ( a living being) grows, diminishes, moves, expands, subtracts, works, rests, acts. All these characteristics signify a living being – A Jivā. All these characteristics menifest only when body. All these characteristics are only external. The main fundamental characteristic of a Jivā is consciousness. Jain philosophy has always recognized Jivā with such consiousness as its characteristic. When a Jivā has a characteristics of consiousness (Chaitanya) it possesses Right knowledge, Right vision, Right character, Right penance the Virya and the undersending to discriminate (Upyogā)
These characteristics like Right Knowledge etc. have several sub-divisions. The total of divisions and subdivisions are 48. They are always present in a Jivā, in one form of other; without which, the Jivā keeps in fundamental and original couciousness intact; and transforms them in various forms during its different positions of life. It is like Gold. It can be transformed in to ornaments like ring, a necklace etc. The forms are changed but the having its fundamental characteristic, as Right Knowledge, Right Vision, Right character etc. keep intact in only kind of life-position, with changing their forms, and structures only; but not the main characteristics.
The soul (Atmā) performs good or bad deeds; and has to face its consequences accordingly. But the soul has no beginning, no end. IT is eternal. It is indefinite. It cannot be destroyed; cannot be made older, cannot be cut into pieces; cannot be removed. It carries its fundamental characteristics intact. It remains as a Jivā only and does not loses its form. That it does not lose its characteristics ever is its main characteristic.
F3 3.1.3 Main Types of Jivā
We find several types of Jivās in the universe. Some of them are fully developed; some are partially developed and some are undeveloped. As such, according to Jainism there are only two main types of Jivās viz. those which are dissociated from the Karmās, and therefore liberated ones and those which are yet covered with several Karmās, and therefore moving in the world in various Gaties (life Species).
The Jivās which are totally undeveloped ones are static ones (Sthāvar). They cannot make movements as per their whishes; they do not clearly. Express their happiness or unhappiness. Such Jivās are;
Prithvikāy - living in earth.
Vayukay - living in air.
Agnikay - living in fire or light.
Vanaspatikay - living in vegetables.
These Jivās are all undeveloped and static. They are only one-sensed –Akendriya.
The partially developed Jivās are called Traskāy. They can move according to their wishes. They have feelings. They can feel and express feelings of happiness or unhappiness. They may have two or three or four or even five senses gradually. They are in the direction of development; but only the Jivās with all five senses- Panchendriya can be considered to be fully developed ones. One can see the4 characteristics of Right knowledge, Right Vision etc. in them. They have been consciously make efforts to become more and more religious.
Let us understand something more about Sthavār (static) one sensed – Ekendriya Jivā and Traskāy Jivā.
The static (Sthavar) Jivās are of five types. Since they have only one sense, they are also known as Ekendriya.
1. Prithvikay - Belonging to Earth such as tone, Metal, Parwala.
2. Apkay - Belonging to water or water forms (such as fog). Water lived
3. Teukay - Belonging to fire or lightering etc. e.g. in a spark, flame,
lighting, fire etc.
4. Vayukay - Belonging to air, cyclone etc.
5. Vanaspatiksy - Belonging to vegetables, trees, plants, flowers, fruits etc.
Even among Vanaspatikay, there are two types viz. Sadharan Vanaspatikay andPratyek Vanaspatikay.
Sadharan Vanaspatikayare those wherein, several, numerous, innumerable Jivās stay in one body only. E.g. Potato or onion etc. where in innumerable Jivās (lives) exist in a single piece_________________ etc. also belong to this category.
Pratyek Vanaspatikay there is only one life in one body. E.g. in a tree, or in a root, or in a trunk, in its skin, fruits, flower, leaf, seed etc. there is only one life in once body.
Be-indriya (Two Sensed): They have two senses viz. touch and taste. They include-worms, insects in food, water-worms, insects in wood etc.
Te-indriya (Three sensed): They have three senses viz. touch, taste and smell. They include bugs, ant, blockant, big ant,
Chaur-indriya (Four sensed) : They have four senses viz. touch, taste, smell and vision. They include, locust, fly, mosquito etc.
Panch-indriya(Five sensed): They have all five senses viz. touch, taste, smell, vision and ear (hearing)
They are in various categories;
1. Hell being (Narki) belonging to seven Hells.
2. Animal being (Tiryanch) belonging to water, Air and earth.
3. God being (Devlok) belonging to Heavens
4. Human (Manushya) living as Human.
These five sensed Jivās are further divided into two viz. These with mind and without mind, those with mind have capacity to think about present, past, future etc. Mind is that which can conceive about word, beauty etc. Those Jivās with mind are called Sa-manask and those without it are Amanask.
The hell beingsm the Gods in heaven, the animals born from womb of mother and human beings are Sa-manaska. Five sensed beings and the other animal beings (birds etc.) are Amanask five sensed beings.
F3 3.1.4 Form of a Jivā (Living) and other details
Jain religion had shown a deep insight into the biology and botany. It has described the meta-physics of the matters in details. Likewise, we find detailed description of living beings also in great details.
During the lives of Mahavir, the philosopher of the religious believed the water is created from its basic elements, and that it is useful for drinking, washing, cleansing etc. But, Lord Mahavir, for the first time without any laboratory tests declared that water is made from gas. Today, science has shown that water is H2O, two portions of hydrogen gas and one portion of oxygen gas. Besides the scientists of today have brought out a photograph showing 36450 living moving germs in only a single drop of water.
Jain religion is perhaps one and only religion which has declared that there is life in earth, water, fire (electricity) air and or course vegetables also. Once in an American Magazine “Time” there appeared an article ‘The Earth that Grows’. It contented that the earthen stuff below the mountain rock was growing with a water poured on it frequently. Fire / Electricity is also a living substance. We know fire can be produced by striking two stone pieces against each other, or even by striking two pieces of dry wood of special kind. The fire grows if we add ghee or oil or even with blow of wind. An incident is recorded where in a village of Sabarkantha district (North Gujarat) in one house, the stones were growing continuously and they were to be cut down. It still grows and regularly cut down.
Jain religion precisely shows the definite shape, birth and re-birth, types and categories, their senses and their specific characteristics for the elements like earth, water, fire and air.
The above five are known as static beings or Sthavar Jivās; but the vegetable beings are categories into two Sadharān and Pratyek.
In Sādhāran Vanaspatikay, there have been infinite number of living beings (cannot be seen with eyes; but they are living beings) which have been taking birth and rebirth in a same single one piece, say potato or onion etc. They are also known as Anantkāy, because they are Anant (infinite number). Each soul is born and re-born in a single body.
In Pratyek Vanaspatikay, there is a separate body and separate independent life e.g. a leaf, a flower, a fruit, a trunk, the skin of a tree and of course, the tree itself. When we pluck a fruit from a tree, the living soul of a fruit is shifted to a branch; but the life of a fruit remain in a fruit till the seed inside is removed from it. Then it becomes dead.
One thing is note-worthy, each vegetable, when it comes out of the ground in the initial stage, it is Anantkay but if it belongs to Pratyek category; it is known as Pratyek. Likewise, there are some vegetable lives which have their roots as Anantkay, but the entire upper portion is Pratyek.
Scientists have found out certain very interesting details wherein there are several vegetable livings which have great similarity with animals, birds or even human beings in terms of their physical constructions, nature, beginning, destruction, utility, strange characteristics of some of its parts of the body etc. e.g. In African forests, there have been several trees which have strange characteristics of food, fear, passion and collection etc. quite dominating.
Thus, modern science has supported the views expressed by Jain religious centuries back that vegetables have life. The talks of Lord Mahavir have been accepted as scientific facts of course, Lord Mahavir have explained the matter to ensure non-violence to all living beings including these vegetables too. He also expressed the vies in disguised form, about ensuring better environment. It has been an expression of “Live and let live”