F2 2.3.1 Know 6 essential acts.
The Sanskrit word ‘Sad’ means ‘Six’ and ‘Avasyak’ means ‘must be done’ in Jainism, 6 3ss3ntial act have been prescribed both for Jain Monks/ nuns and fro Jain Household followers.
1. Samyaik (Equanimity for a fixed / limited time)
This act contributes to development of equanimity and peace of mind. It is an act for 48 minutes, where in a person keeps away himself from any kind of violence to anybody, gives up all sinful activities and concentrates on spiritual / religious. thoughts alone.
2. Chatruvinshati Stavan (Remembering 24 Tirthankaras)
It is a kind of praise making for all 24 Tirthankaras with them names, repeated remembering (Jap), also remembering their qualities, and also offering them one’s devotion and pooja.
3. Vandan (Bowing Down the Head)
It is necessary to respectly offer one’ sregards to the respected Acharyas and Gurus.
4. Pratikraman (Confession)
Pratikraman is a kind of confession and repentance for all the evil Karmās, which have been done knowingly or unknowingly by the mind, speech or act they might have been done by self or got done by others, or even could have been appreciated by self where done or proposed to be dose by others Pratikaman is that act thought which one returns from the sinful activities and thoughts to God’s path.
5. Kayotsarg ( Reframing from the attachment of the body)
Here, one has to turn the face from love and feelings fro one’s body. One has to deeply concentrate on the spirit of soul. That is kayotsarg.
6. Pratyakhan (Renunciation of Dravya [Material] and Bhav [Spiritual])
In simple words, it means to give up something for sometime at least one has to limit or control one’s activities. That is also pratyakhyan. A devote always gives up something or other almost everyday for purity of his soul. That can be said to be pratyakhyan. Pratyakhyan leads to the obstruction of Asravā.
All these six essentials contribute to the growth in efficiency of body and mind. They Purify one’s thought–process. One can easily lead oneself towards spiritual prigress after Purifying ones’ heart and making the worldly life happy and peaceful.
F2 2.3.2 Significance of 6 essentials and their Benefits.
There are six acts which are Essential. They are;
1. Samayik - Equanimity for a limit time span.
2. Stavan - Reciting God’s praises.
3. Vandan - Offering respect to Lord.
4. Protikraman - Confession of evil deeds.
5. Kayotsarg - Forget body, travel in soul.
6. Pratyakhan - Take some vow to give up (Dravya and Bhav
All these 6 essentials are very very important for both monks and lay followers to progress in the direction of Moksha.
Samayik : It is an effort to achieve samatva- Neutrality or equal feelings under any circumstances. There are two kinds- internal and external through Samayik
- A person gets capacity to give up any kinds of external violence.
- By an internal devotion, a person learns to be ampathic to all living beings.
- He learns to remain undisturbed, unmoved, indifferent to both happiness and unhappiness, life and death, benefit and loss, praise and criticism
- Get his soul pure by being mentally indifferent to any kind of act, being away from sins and having crushed the passions like love and hatred.
Stavan : By a Stavan (Praise to Lord)
- The ego of a devotee is reduced and his love for lord gets manifested
- There is an increase in fond for virtues.
Vandan : By this;
- The virtues like politeness manners and humility comes in forefront.
- Due to karmic effect, the chances for birth in high status family overpower its counterpart etc.
- Gets the shelter, results of obedience etc.
Pratikraman: By a Pratikraman;
- The mind gets peace and calmness because of repentance of sins.
- One can join in good deeds, retiring from evil deeds in an atmosphere of purity of heart which can lead to Mokshā.
- The foults done are done away with and the future faults are also prevented. No new evil karmas come forth. Mind can be concentrated on sanyam.
Kayotsarg : By Kayotsarg;
- The love and affection for body reduces.
- Both the body and mind are purified therefore, studies of Annpreksha and Bharna is facilitated.
- One leans to be indifferent to both happiness and unhappiness.
- One becomes capable to cncentrate on the good feelings of mind.
- Kayotsarg is also useful for health of body.
- While both body and mind are relaxed, the tissues get fresh. Mental pressure reduces and therefore one can save oneself from diseases like B.P.
Pratrykhyan / Pachhakhan : By Pachakhan (Vov):
- Life becomes controlled, Desires get destroyed.
- By control of consumable things, one gets immune / indifferent.
- The Asravas (Passions) are destroyed, karmas become lightened, heart becomes peaceful.
- One can be useful to others because he consumes less and less articles. He can useful in attaining economic equality.
F2 2.3.3 First three essentials among the six ones.
Among the 6 essential acts, as stated in Agam scriptures, first 3 are ‘Samayik’, ‘Stavan’ and ‘Vandan’.
1. Samayik (Equanimity) : Samayik is that vow in which one develops ampathy towards all living being, observes ‘Samyak’ keeps good feelings and gives up both worse and worst kinds of feelings. There are two words in Samayik they are’ Sam’ and ‘Aya’. ‘Sam’ means ‘equal’ and Aya means ‘to go’. If one’s actions and thoughts go towards the soul’s equal, it is Samayik. It is the highest peak of Jain meditation. It is also called meditation beyond feelings. It is also known as essential yoga. In any case, it is a gate way to soul. Samayik is that act in which one totally gives us thoughts for sinful attitude sinful thoughts or sinful actions. It is an act, wherein one is involved in sincere religious meditation and self-realisation.
Kinds of Samayik:
The Kinds of Samayik are enumerated as
Devirti Samayik and
They are steps to journey within. There are 7 meanings , 3 basis and 8 names also. It is to be done with keeping away 42 faults.
· One gives us violence and therefore his sins are destroyed.
· There is an equanimity of feelings of mind and one gets religious feelings.
· From health point of view, one keeps away diseases like blood-pressure, insomania, tensions etc.
2. Stavan: This means praises to 24 Tirthankaras. One remembers their names, praises their virtues and qualities, offers pooja etc. There are 2 kinds of Stavana. It can be done by offering some material substance – Dravya Stavan or it can be done just by remembering and repeating his qualities and virtues. That is Bhav Stavan.
According to Jain Conduct, the devotee makes pooja and Stavan to Jain Tirthankaras. Tirthankaras being 24 in number it is know as Chaturvinshati (24) stav. It brings clear vision.
· One destroys one’s ego through media of Stavan and devotion.
· One develops respect for virtues .
· It destroys one’s worries and sorrows.
· One tries to develop similar virtues in himself as those of Tirthankaras whom he remembers and praises. Thus he ultimately can reach to Jivatva (Godliness.)
3. Yoga : Vandan is to bow down respectfully. It is meant to mean the real respect and regards for revered persons. It indicates one’s own humility. After offering Vandan to Lord Tirthankaras, they are also offered to Guru who shows us the path of Moksha.
Five different word like.
Vandan Karma, Chitimarma, Kritikarma, Pooja Karma and Vinay Karma are used for the same one word ‘Vandan’.
There have been certain ---- and Don’t s for Vandan. They are described in a doors of Vandan.
Only those persons are worthy of Vandan, who possess the qualities of good behavior and virtues. Even a person who offers the Vandan should be equipped with good conduct and devotion. If you offer Vandan to the person who is devoid of Virtues and who is unfair it is indirect motivation and appreciation for such bad conduct.
· The qualities of Politeness and good manners are developed in person.
· His ego disappears. The qualities of goodness etc. are developed.
· Gets the fruit of developing goodness.
· His past evil deeds are destroyed.
F2 2.3.4 Remaining Three essentials
Pratikraman (Confession): Pratikraman is confession, repentance. The Pratikraman is to be performed in order to retire from those evil deeds done through mind, body or speech, or getting them done through others, or even appreciated or confirmed what was done be others. The devotee himself thinks about his own evil deeds, analyses them, repents them. The main objective of pratikraman is to get engaged for good deeds with purity of mind so that retirement from evil deed can result in way to Moksha.
Pratikramans are of 5 Kinds as per divisions made according to time.
1. Devsik - Daily in the evening.
2. Ratrik - Daily in the moring.
3 Pakshik - Fortnightly.
4. Chaturmasik - Once in 4 months.
5. Samvatsarik - Once annually.
All pratikramans can start only after taking samayik fist.
- While you confess your evil deeds, you repent for them you ask for pandan, and you device no to repeat them. It brings peace of mind. You get light hearted.
- There is no repetitions of impure activates.
- A devotee can concentrate on pure form of soul. He becomes passionless.
- One gets rightful vision and rightful conduct.
- Protikraman is a holy process of taking vow for stabilizing mind-heart and soul by willingly accepting the commands of authentic ancestors.
- Pratikraman is that purifying process of tasting and proving the acquired and non-acquired knowledge in the act of realistic self feelings laboratory.
Kayotsarg :Kayotsarg is leaving the faulty love /Affection to body. Showing total apathy to the body for limited timespan. During kayotsarg, no bodily movements is allowed.
There are two kinds of Kayotsarg;
1) Dravya (Material) Kayotsarg
2) Bhav Kayotsarg
Usually what we perform is Dravya (Material /Chesta) Kayotsarg in this, bodily movement are prohibited for certain period of time. The bodily troubles, during this period are endured with patience and without mental disturbance.
But the spiritual /Bhav kayotsarg is one when there is concentration of meditation.
- The body becomes pure and stabilized.
- The acts of knowledge and thoughts get pure
- One becomes indifferent to happiness or unhappiness the anpreksha and the feeling can be done steadily.
- The meditations is facilitated in kayotsarg.
- The retiring position of body and mind gives freshness is felt when the mental pensions are removed.
Prayakhyan means the activities are limited or restricted. Pachakhyan is necessary for restrictions on desires . Pratyakhyan also means renunciation. A devotee gives up something or the other everyday for purity of soul. This process is pratyakhyan. Such renunciation is necessary for restrained life.
There are two kinds of Pratyakhyan.
(1) Dyavya Pratyakhyan (Rennunciation of material thing)
(2) Bhav Pratyakhyan (Rennunciation of spiritual substance)
To give up food, clothing4 possession etc. is Dravya prahtyakhyan.
To give up the evil mental attitudes like love, hatred, passions etc. is spiritual (Bhav) Pratyakhyan.
- The tendency to enjoy only worldly funs becomes restricted and limite.
- There is tendency for non-possession.
- There is a development on way to devotion through regular renunciation.
- One develops feelings of indifference.
- Soul becomes for purified.