F2 2.2.1 Process to become a Jain Monk.
The life style of a Jain Sadhu is a life style to become really most happiest person. Jain religion shows special process of monk life, to be away from tension, pressure, worries, conflicts and problems.
In order to develop the strength of life, it is necessary to change the heart, and for change in heart we have to change the idea / thoughts.
Before becoming a Jain Monk, the person desiring to become so, is properly trained, and oriented in its style.
A Jain monk makes use of minimum items in his life, and he suffer maximum bodily troubles, and leads holy life.
In order to become a Jain monk, one has to pass through several eligibilities;
1) He has to be without any handicap in any of the 5 senses and should hail from a noble family.
2) His mind should be away from this world and should have aptitude for the detached life.
3) Dependence on Guru -He should always be willing to respect and follow the instructions of his Guru.
4) Immune: He should be able to keep peace of mind in any situation.
5) Should be strict in food habits, should be accustomed to pure Jain pattern of food and boiled water.
6) He should not show any sign of disapproval / fatigue for studies / penance/ service etc.
7) He should be enthusiastic in following all the rules, regulations of Jainism.
Such person is considered eligible to become a Jain sadhu. In order to remain in the company of Jain monks During such period, he has to move on foot from one place to other along with the Sadhus, practice penance etc., some persons also try to practice of tacking away (snatching by hand) the hair from the head. They also practice Payshadh (Monk life style temporarily) padilehan (examining the used / unused clothes from non-violence point of view) prutikraman (Confession) twise a day, so that they can prove their eligibility with greater claim. When the great Acharya finds him thoroughly worthy, he is given white dress used by monk and initiates him in monk’s life.
2.2.2 Institution of Jain Monk system.
The basis of Jain philosophy and Jain principles is Jain infrastructure (Shāsan). In the central place of Jain infrastructure is the holy institutions of Jain Monk system.
The Jain infrastructural administation of Jain system is carried out by Chaturvidh Shri Sangh - an institution constituted by four fold leir of Sadhy, Sadhvi, Shravak and Shravika (Monk, Nuns, follower disciple men and women)
At the helm of the affairs of the total monk institution is Shri Bhagvant or Acharya Bhagvant. They are sovereign power. They have the responsibility of well being of Jainism. He leads all towards the path of Moksha.
1. Suri (Acharya) Bhagvant.
They are sovereign authority in Jain infrastructure. He holds 36 qualities. HE is profound, deep, religious – minded, impressive in the infrastructure. He is holder of 5 special codes of conduct and also motivates others to hold them.
2. Upadhyay Bhagvant.
They are scholars of 45 Jain Holy Scriptures (Agāms) they are known for penance. They are leaders in the term of assistants to Acharya Bhagvnat. They are very skillful in both definitive stand point (Nischay) and empirical stand point (Vyavhar) of Naya. They are always eager to impust religious knowledge of scriptures to younger monks and nuns. Usually they are senior and have passes through at least 25 years of Monkhood.
3. Panyasapad Dharak (Holder of Panyas status)
They have attained scholistic qualities. They are scholars of 45 religious scripture (Agams). They are engrossed in knowledge and meditation. They have impressive religious status and usually they have undergone at least 20 year’s of monkhood.
4. Gani Pad Dharak (Holder of Gani Status)
He too knows scripture (Agāms) and has studied the fifth Agām, known as Bhogwatisutra after undergoing prescribed Process of learning (Yogodratan). He has good receptive quality and has been specially trained to look after a small sect (Gān) i.e. Gachha. Usually he has undergone at least 15 years of mankhood.
5. Parvartak Pad Dharak (Holding of ‘Parvatak’ Status
They are senior among monks and have special quality to orient and train the new monks to get established in monk life.
6. Sthavir Munivar (Senior Monks)
There are different kinds:
Shrut – Sthavir (Seniour by knpwledge) :They have studied the Agām’s 4th scripture-samvayag
Paryay-Sthavir (Senior by seniority in monks) : They have become monk before 20 years or more.
Vay Sthavir (Senior by Age): They are more than 70 year’s old.
He is concentrated in efforts to attain mokshā. He looks upward. He holds 27 knowledge, meditation, penance, service-oriented.
In women, when they become nun after renunciation of the world, are ‘ Sadhvi’ (Nun). Only a very selective person from away then is given a status of ‘Pravartini’. They can learn upto only 4 Agām scripture and not beyond it. There are perhaps very few of them as on to-day.
2.2.3Code of Conduct for Jain Monks.
The ultimate objective for a jain monk is to attain Mokshā. He is followes of Truth. His way of living and the behavior pattern are always in accordance with the instructions of Lord Tirthankara.
Jiv Tirthankar have always instructed to be away from love, hatred, desire, sex, passion, idleness, etc. etc. All these are exercise within one self, and in order to conquer them, the jain sudhu follows five great vows throughout his life.
A Jain monk has no house of his own, nor has he ownership on any shop, firm, Company, Factory etc. He is totally free from all tranactions of worldly life-style.
They do not touch the unboiled water, fire, vegetables throughout their life. They do not themselves ever prepare any items to eat i.e. food / snacks /tea/ coffee etc. They do not even touch any individual of opposite sex. They do not use electricity or any appliances such as electric fan, freeze, phone, mobile etc.
They move all around, from villages to village, from town to town just walking. They do not use any vehicle. They do not store the eatable for next day. They neither consumed such item prepared on previous day and kept and preserved for next day. They do not keep any money, they do not keep any umbrella of any protective article. They do not use any kind of shoes / Chappal any thing of that kind. They do not get their hairs cut or beard shaved at Hair cutting solon, or with the help of barber and his instruments. They remove one’s own hair by snatching with hand either himself or through somebody. This is usually done one or twice a year. They put own white clothes, not stiched. It is simple plain unstiched cloth. The ‘Ogha’ and ‘Muhapatti’ are their full time companions. With ogha, they always try to take care of smallest creature and with muhpatti, they try to cover their lips when they speak, lest even smallest of living being in air is hurt. When they move out of their Upashray or place of abode, they keep a woolen chaddar on the shoulder and a stick in hand. This is his identity.
They have been cautious of keeping his mind, speech and body clean by following 5 great vows.
They also follow very strictly and scrupulously the principle of non-violence, principle of multiple view point, principle of non-possession.
Thus, follow the religious by giving up violence, lie, theft, sex, and egoism and by imbibing the qualities like pardan, softness, numberless, character, penance, truth etc. in their day to day life. They enjoins themselves in the inevitable acts like Pratikraman (Confession) twice a day. Padilehan-Uncovering all clothes from ‘Jayana’ point of view, Swadhyay- learning of Scriptures and other religious material, penance, ranging from navkarshi to Biyashan, Ekasan or total fast etc.; Chauvihar – giving up eating and drinking after sunset, and consumption of only those items which are innocent of all throughout their life.
They make their soul indeed very pure by samatā-positive attitude to life; and they become responsible for transformation of others by real positive sermons and become an ideal figure for many people.
2.2.4 Scope of Work for Jain Monk.
The main scope for Jain Monks is to understand, explain, expand and develop the Jainism for many many years to come. In the absence of Jain Tirthankaras, this has been their life mission.
The holy Jain monks and nuns have been constantly busy in pursuance of knowledge, meditation, penance, giving up of worldly matters, following of characterous life. These are all efforts not only of body but that of mind and soul; and through this they attain the best divine qualities according to their capacities.
In Jain Saddhu Community, some status bearers and senior monks are especially righteous persons of special quality, and their speech is very very effective. Their words are immortal. They know both Jain and non-Jain Scriptures. Their conduct is very pure. They lead people to good path and path to devotion they move from village to village, just walking. They inspire the rich followers and give them serious regarding the old and ancient jain temples, Places of learnin, places of devoted worship etc. and get them renovated or re-built. To the comers their expectations. They give sermons for Sadharmik Bhakti (Helping the follower being) and Anukampadan (Helping the Poof) They get the donations of lakhs and carores of rupees flowing to the paths of religion, good action or towards devotional purposes without any selfish motive of their own.
The best among the jain monks are very learned and scholars, train the youngster newly admitted monks and nuns by teaching tem scriptures like Agāms and other religious literature. They try to stabilize them in the monk’s life by encouraging them for various devotional activities Besides this, they also provide information and guidance on Jainism in general and better, religious life-style etc. through the media of religious discourse talks and religion – based camps to the people at large.
Jain monks and nuns, through their very strick conduct behaviour and devotional life throughout their whole life-time, place before a society an ideal of useful living. They have their focus on soul only and therefore they are always trying consciously for making oneself pure, wise, high and bright. Thus they do good to both self and others. Their main life mission is to become and to be totally free from all karmas.