1.3.1 Trio Jewel (Ratna tari)
1. Focal Point of efforts in Jain Religion.
There is a smayak Darshan, Gyān, Charitrya. These are trio-jewel. To pursue them in noble and subtle way jointly is a true path to achieve Moksha.
“Samyag, Darshan, Gyan anē Charitrāni Mokshā Marg.”- Tatwarthsutra 1-1.
Jain Religion has indicated the ways to achieve Moksha for overall progress of life for this a fine vision, a fine knowledge and a fine conduct are necessary, nay, inevitable.
True vision is one, wherein one has internal interest, aptitude and deep conviction in the elements stated by or established by Lord Tirthankaras. There are 67 qualities in it. The inner vision develops when these qualities are imbibed. One can easily see the naked truth of worldly relationships. One gets learned towards self.
In this, one gets true sense of discrimination. One is convinced about the existence of six-fold enemies such as Mohā, Mamtā, Vāsnā, (Infatuation, false attraction and Passion). One gets true vision of self- image. There are 51 qualities in it.
True conduct is one wherein there is an increase of consciousness and vigilance in life. There is an increase in self- realization and the activities in that direction, the conduct is full of character, goodness, non-violence etc. There are 70 qualities.
There are 3 main steps for successful action. In order to get something more, to be something and to achieve perfectness, one has to try to know, show interest, cultivate aptitude and keep deep faith. All there bring true vision. In order to achieve it, one has to achieve true knowledge also. After this, in order to achieve the eligibility, one has to walk to the path of truth and thereafter the character. This is the process to reach to the expected place.
The original form of substances of the world are known as elements. There nine elements comprise in them any original substance or material of the world. There is not a single thing or living being which is not included in these nine elements. We see here in them the nature, form, result of any thing or any material. Any thing which is visible or invisible; living or non-living in the world can be seen in these 9 elements. The whole world basically are made of two main elements: Living elements and Non living elements. The living element is known as the soul or conscious. There are 6 characteristics through which the Jivā , living being can be recognized. E.g. Knowledge, Vision Character, Penance, Virya and Upyog- congnitive operation. The items those are not possessing these 6 characteristics are non-living. All that is visible and invisible in this world are included in these two; Living and Non-living. In order to understand each and every substance of the world in totality Jain Religion has divided them into 9 elements.
(1) Jivā (Living ): Human beings, Animals, Birds etc., which possess 5 senses and 10 dravya pranā are Jivā
(2) Ajivā (Non-living): That which does not have any consiousness, such as Table, Stone etc., there are 14 types of Ajivā
(3) Virtue: Any good deed which results in a sense of happiness is virtue. e.g. To be rich, To get power, There are 42 sub types.
(4) Sin: There are the bad deeds, resulting into miserability, unhappiness etc., There are 82 sub types.
(5) Asrava : Inflow of Karmic matter It is an inflow of good or bad karmic matter It has 82 sub-division.
(6) Samvar : (To stop, To prevent) It is an activity through which good or bad karmās are prevented to enter. There are 42 kinds.
(7)Bandh : (Bound Karmā) The elements of karmā has that of milk and water. There are 42 kinds.
(8) Nirjarā : (Dissociation of Karmās) It is gradual destruction of Karmā. That is done in 12 ways .
(9) Mokshā : (Liberation) Wherein the karmās are destructed totally. It is achieved in 9 ways. In this the fine form of the soul is attained.
Jivā (Living being / also soul)
It grows,it diminished, it eats, drinks, makes efforts to defend the self. It is associated aim body, and till then, an these characteristics are evident. These are external characteristics, but the internal characteristic is consciousness awakening. Jain philosophy believing that Soul is in the form of consciousness. It preserves its original form intact; but changes in other conditions too. E.g. Gold and ornaments made from it.
The soul is the same in its original form. Its positions can be changed; its meanings are changed. Even the soul can have bigger/ expanded form of smaller/ diminished form along with bodily activities. Just as time is without a beginning or an end; like that the soul has no beginning. Its original form is never destroyed.
If the soul has a clear vision, it can become clearer with thinking of nine elements. Even if it does not have clear elements can help it achieves the clarity of vision and gradually the karmās are destroyed in course of time and one can attain final liberation.
Five Great Vows
The path shown by the Tirthankaras can be divided into two parts from view point of the capacity of a person and his efficiency. They are ;
(1) Sarva Virti Dharma i.e. Total renunciation of this worldly life, and
(2) Desh Virti Dharma i.e. Partial acceptance of it.
Sarva Virti Dharma means totally keeping away of all kinds of sins by mind, by speech and by action. One who accepts this path, does not do any kind of sin himself, nor does he encourage to do it nor would he ever approve of such sin for activity. In Desh Virti Dharma, one gives up the sins partially.
In Jainism, one who renunciates the world and becomes a monk/ nun, totally accepts the Sarva Virti Dharma, and it is obligatory to accept 5 great vows throughout one’s life. These five great vows are:
(1) Pranatiad Viraman Vrat i.e. non violence.
(2) Mrushavad Virman Vrat i.e. always telling Truth.
(3) Adattadan Virman Vrat i.e. giving up all kinds of theft.
(4) Maithun Virman Vrat i.e. celibacy through one’s life.
(5) Parigrah Virman Vrat i.e. Non- possession of any material thing including property, money etc. etc.
One who keeps these vows scrupulously, shines his/her soul, and in course of time becomes a Siddhā-one whose all the karmās are totally withered away.
(1) One should not indulge into any kind of violence against any living being small or big.
(2) One should not cheat anybody, should never never tell a lie.
(3) Not only that one should not indulge into any theft. But should not even take away any thing-small or big- without its owner’s expressed permission.
(4) Not to touch a woman, should keep one’s mind, speech and body pure and clean by keeping away totally from hetro-sexual or homosexual etc.,
(5) Should give up the 9 phased possession throughout one’s life, such as Power, Wealth, Woman, House, Shop etc.,
Our monks and nuns observe these five great vows throughout their lives very scrupulously. That is why they are worthy of our worship, our devotion, our faith in them.
Naturally the soul becomes stronger with these 5 great vows. One’s internal luster and brightness increases. All his activities and other involvements become clean and can easily get the worldly achievements and purity of soul. What con not be achieved with the assets and properties worth crores of rupees can be achieved by keeping these 5 vows.
1.3.4 Introduction to 8 Karmās
If a soul is strong and universal why there are so many events birth-death, happiness and unhappiness , master and Servants etc.,? All these are due to the Karmās which are associated with the soul since time immemorial. When the soul takes a birth in any place, in any country, in any caste or community any life-surrounded by four elements like food, fear, passion, possession. On account of these, The soul either gets better Karmās or Worse Karmās, Through out his existence any where
The karmās have main two types:
(1) Ghati Karmā – destructive karmās.
(2) Aghati Karmā – Non-destructive karmās.
(1) Gyanavarniya Karmā : The Karmā covering Knowledge. This Karmā stops the infinite quality of knowledge of the soul. It is compared to the conversing of eyes with a piece of cloth. It has five sub-division.
(2) Darshnavarniy Karmā : A Karmā, covering vision. It stops the Infinite qualities of vision for soul it is like a watchman on a gate. It has nine sub-division.
(3) Mojmiya Karmā : Deluding Karmā. It stops the virtue like Godliness. It he naves like wine-addict. It has 28 sub-division.
(4) Antrya Karmā : Obstructive Karmā. It obstacles the infinite nature of the soul. It behaves like a cashier. It has 5 sub-division.
4 Aghati (Non-desturcive Kramās)
(1) Vedniya Karmā – Feeling- producing Karmā : This obstructs the true nature of happiness of the soul. Its nature is like tasting the honey from the edge of the sword. It has two sub-divisions.
(2) Ayushya Karmā : Longevity determining Karmā. It stops the soul being immortal. It resembles like a Jail. It has 4 sub-division
(3) Nām- Karmā- personality determining Karmā : It covers the formless characteristic of soul. It has a nature like a painter. It has 103 sub divisions.
(4) Gotra Karmā-status determining Karmā : It covers that characteristic of the soul wherein the soul is neither small nor big . It is like a pot of a potter. It has two subdivisions.
Likewise, there are Dravyā karmā (Material Karmā) and Bhāva Karmā (Spiritual Karmā). The illustration of Dravyā Karmā are to eat to drink, to laugh to move, to sleep etc. These are all natural activities. The illustration of Bhāva Karmā are anger, lying , theft, violence etc.
All these Either Karmās come to Soul, with 5 aims viz.
(1) Mithyātva - Wrong faith.
(2) Avirati - Not observing vows.
(3) Pramad - Non restraint, spiritual lethargy.
(4) Kasāya - Passion.
(5) Yoga - Activities of mind, body, speech
When the soul determines to be free from the bondage of Karmā, a person tries to accept. Samyaktwa – Right attitude develops the interest towards Virti dharma (restraint/renunciation of worldly matters), active towards spiritual action, less passionate; and gradually, he moves ahead on the path to purity / cleanliness of soul.